## Euclid

<language>

(Named after the Greek geometer, fl ca 300 BC.) A Pascal descendant for development of verifiable system software. No goto, no side effects, no global assignments, no functional arguments, no nested procedures, no floats, no enumeration types. Pointers are treated as indices of special arrays called collections. To prevent aliasing, Euclid forbids any overlap in the list of actual parameters of a procedure. Each procedure gives an imports list, and the compiler determines the identifiers that are implicitly imported. Iterators.

Ottawa Euclid is a variant.

["Report on the Programming Language Euclid", B.W. Lampson et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(2):1-79, Feb 1977].

Last updated: 1998-11-23

## Euclidean norm

The most common norm, calculated by summing the squares of all coordinates and taking the square root. This is the essence of Pythagoras's theorem. In the infinite-dimensional case, the sum is infinite or is replaced with an integral when the number of dimensions is uncountable.

Last updated: 2004-02-15

## Euclid's Algorithm

(Or "Euclidean Algorithm") An algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two numbers. It relies on the identity

``` gcd(a, b) = gcd(a-b, b)

```
To find the GCD of two numbers by this algorithm, repeatedly replace the larger by subtracting the smaller from it until the two numbers are equal. E.g. 132, 168 -> 132, 36 -> 96, 36 -> 60, 36 -> 24, 36 -> 24, 12 -> 12, 12 so the GCD of 132 and 168 is 12.

This algorithm requires only subtraction and comparison operations but can take a number of steps proportional to the difference between the initial numbers (e.g. gcd(1, 1001) will take 1000 steps).

Last updated: 1997-06-30

## Eudora

Electronic mail software for communicating over TCP/IP from Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, and IBM OS/2 computers. Both commercial and free versions are produced by QUALCOMM, Inc.

## EULER

[Named after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)] A revision of ALGOL by Niklaus Wirth. A small predecessor of Pascal.

["EULER: A Generalisation of ALGOL and Its Formal Definition", N. Wirth, CACM 9(1) (Jan 1966) and 9(2) (Feb 1966)].

## EuLisp

1985-present. A Lisp dialect intended to be a common European standard, with influences from Common LISP, Le LISP, Scheme and T. First-class functions, classes and continuations, both static scope and dynamic scope, modules, support for parallelism. The class system (TELOS) incorporates ideas from CLOS, ObjVLisp and Oaklisp.

E-mail: <[email protected]>.

## EUnet Ltd.

EUnet Ltd. is jointly owned by the EUnet national service providers and EurOpen, the European Forum for Open Systems.

EUnet services include electronic mail (Internet-style RFC 822 as well as X.400), InterEUnet (Internet Protocol) connectivity and services such as remote login and file transfer over leased lines, dial-up lines, X.25 and Integrated Services Digital Network. EUnet is the primary European region provider of network news and the top-level European distributor of Internet Talk Radio.

EUnet operates its own infrastructure across Europe and is the largest European component of the Internet. EUnet is a member of Commercial Internet Exchange and Ebone93, a research network consortium.

E-mail: <[email protected]>. http://eu.net/.

## Euphoria

End User Programming with Hierarchical Objects for Robust Interpreted Applications. Interpreted language with dynamic storage and dynamic typing. Rapid Deployment Software.

E-mail: <[email protected]>.

## Eureka

A European technological development programme.

## Eureka step

In program transformation, a transformation which is not obvious or easy to define as an algorithm.

Last updated: 1994-12-08

## Eurisko

A language for "opportunistic programming" written by Doug Lenat in 1978. Eurisko constructs its own methods and modifies its strategies as it tries to solve a problem.

[Mentioned by Alan Kay, SIGPLAN Notices 28(3), March 1993, p. 88].

Last updated: 1994-12-08

## Eurocard

A range of standard circuit board sizes.

Normal double Eurocard = 233.4 x 160 mm Extended double Eurocard = 233.4 x 220 mm Super extended double Eurocard = 233.4 x 250 mm Hyper extended double Eurocard = 233.4 x 280 mm

## Euro-ISDN

European Integrated Services Digital Network.

An ETSI standard for Integrated Services Digital Network being phased in in March 1994. Euro-ISDN will allow full transparent interworking between all European countries (members of the CEPT). It is available on a commercial basis in most European countries.

Last updated: 1994-12-08

## EuroNet

<company>

An IAP from Amsterdam, The Netherlands operating since 1994-08-01 and owned by France Telecom since 1998-11-06.

E-mail: <[email protected]>.

Telephone: +31 (020) 535 5555.

Fax: +31 (020) 535 5400.

Address: Herengracht 208-214, 1016 BS Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Last updated: 1999-01-17

## EuropaNET

A combination of pan-European backbone services run by DANTE.

## European Academic and Research Network

(EARN) A self-managing network in the research community originally sponsored by IBM. It uses BITNET protocols and connects to BITNET in the USA.

Last updated: 1995-11-15

## European Computer-Industry Research Centre GmbH

<body>

(ECRC) A joint research organisation founded in 1984 on the initiative of three major European manufacturers: Bull (France), ICL (UK) and Siemens (Germany). Its activities were intended to enhance the future competitive ability of the European Information Technology industry and thus complement the work of national and international bodies.

The Centre is intended to be the breeding ground for those ideas, techniques and products which are essential for the future use of electronic information processing. The work of the Centre will focus on advanced information processing technology for the next generation of computers.

ECRC is an independent company, owned equally by its shareholders. The formal interface between ECRC and its shareholders consists of two bodies: The Shareholders' Council, which approves the Centre's programmes and budgets and supervises their execution and the Scientific Advisory Board, which advises the Shareholders' Council in determining future research directions.

There are many collaborations between ECRC and its shareholders' companies on specific projects (Technology Transfer, prospective studies etc). The Centre is staffed by highly qualified scientists drawn from different countries. Research staff are hired directly by ECRC, as well as some who come on assignment from the member companies, and others seconded from public research agencies and universities.

Seminars are held which bring together specialists from the Centre and the member companies.

ECRC's mission is to pursue research in fundamental areas of computer science. The aim is to develop the theory, methodologies and tools needed to build innovative computer applications. ECRC contributes actively to the international effort that is expanding the frontiers of knowledge in computer science. It plays an important role in bridging the gap between research and industry by striving to work at the highest academic level with a strong industrial focus. ECRC constitutes an opportunity in Europe for the best scientists and offers young researchers the possibility to mature in an environment which exposes them to both fundamental research and the process of delivering the results to industry.

ECRC plays an important role in Europe and is involved in several European Community initiatives. It is regularly consulted by the Commission of the European Communities on strategic issues, such as the definition of future research plans, international co-operation and relationships between academia and industry.

Address: ECRC GmbH, Arabellastrasse 17, D-81925 Munich, Germany.

Telephone: +49 (89) 926 99 0. Fax: +49 (89) 926 99 170.

Last updated: 1994-12-01

## European Computer Manufacturers Association

<body>

(ECMA) The former name of ECMA International

## European Strategic Programme for Research in Information Technology

<project>

(ESPRIT) A funding programme to develop Information Technology in the European Economic Communities. Superseded by Framework 4.

Last updated: 1996-05-13

## European Telecommunications Standards Institute

<body>

(ETSI) A European version of the ITU-T(?).

Last updated: 1996-05-13

## EUUG

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