T1

<communications>

An AT&T term for a digital carrier facility used to transmit a DS1 formatted digital signal at 1.544 megabits per second.

T1 transmission uses a bipolar Return To Zero alternate mark inversion line coding scheme to keep the DC carrier component from saturating the line.

Although some consider T1 signaling obsolete, much equipment operates at the "T1 rate" and such signals are either combined for transmission via faster circuits, or demultiplexed into 64 kilobit per second circuits for distribution to individual subscribers.

T1 signals can be transported on unshielded twisted pair telephone lines. The transmitted signal consists of pips of a few hundred nanoseconds width, each inverted with respect to the one preceding. At the sending end the signal is 1 volt, and as received, greater than 0.01 volts. This requires repeaters about every 6000 feet.

The information is contained in the timing of the signals, not the polarity. When a long sequence of bits in the transmitted information would cause no pip to be sent, "bit stuffing" is used so the receiving apparatus will not lose track of the sending clock.

A T1 circuit requires two twisted pair lines, one for each direction. Some newer equipment uses the two lines at half the T1 rate and in full-duplex mode; the sent and received signals are separated at each end by components collectively called a "hybrid". Although this technique requires more sophisticated equipment and lowers the line length, an advantage is that half the sent and half the received information is mixed on any one line, making low-tech wiretaps less a threat.

See also Integrated Services Digital Network.

Last updated: 1994-11-23

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systolic arraySysVileszT\tT1T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTA

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T1 line

T1

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SysVileszT\tT1T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTATAA

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T1 rate

T1

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szT\tT1T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTATAATABtable

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T3

<communications>

A digital carrier facility used to transmit a DS3 formatted digital signal at 44.736 megabits per second.

See also Integrated Services Digital Network.

Last updated: 1994-11-23

Nearby terms:

T\tT1T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTATAATABtabletable locking

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T3 line

T3

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T1T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTATAATABtabletable locking

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TA

Terminal Adaptor

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T1 lineT1 rateT3T3 lineTATAATABtabletable locking

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TAA

Track Average Amplitude

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T1 rateT3T3 lineTATAATABtabletable lockingtablespace

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TAB

HT

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T3T3 lineTATAATABtabletable lockingtablespaceTABLET

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table

<database>

A collection of records in a relational database.

Last updated: 1997-06-04

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T3 lineTATAATABtabletable lockingtablespaceTABLETTABLOG

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table locking

<database>

A technique used in database management systems, where an entire table is locked while data in it is being updated.

Other techniques are row-level locking and MVCC.

Last updated: 1999-06-18

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TAATABtabletable lockingtablespaceTABLETTABLOGtab-separated values

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tablespace

<database, storage>

A logical unit of storage used by an Oracle database. A tablespace is made up of one or more operating system files. Each table, index or other object that requires storage is located in a tablespace.

The database administrator typically assigns a default and a temporary tablespace to each user and grants a quota on each so they can create tables and indexes.

Last updated: 2006-08-24

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tabletable lockingtablespaceTABLETTABLOGtab-separated values

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TABLET

A query language.

["Human Factor Comparison of a Procedural and a Non-procedural Query Language", C. Welty et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 6(4):626-649 (Dec 1981)].

Last updated: 1994-11-23

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table lockingtablespaceTABLETTABLOGtab-separated values

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TABLOG

<language>

A programming language based on first order predicate logic with equality that combines relational programming and functional programming. It has functional notation and unification as its binding mechanism. TABLOG supports a more general subset of standard first order logic than Prolog. It employs the Manna-Waldinger 'deductive-tableau' proof system as an interpreter instead of resolution.

Last updated: 1997-06-19

Nearby terms:

tablespaceTABLETTABLOGtab-separated valuesTABSOLTabulating Machine Company

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tab-separated values

<file format>

(TSV) A file format used as a portable representation of a database. Each line represents one entry or record; and in every line, each field is separated from the next by a tab character (HT).

Compare CSV.

Last updated: 2001-03-16

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TABLOGtab-separated valuesTABSOLTabulating Machine Company

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TABSOL

<language>

A language extension for GECOM written in the form of truth tables which was compiled into code for the tests and actions described. TABSOL was developed by T.F. Kavanaugh, and was in use around 1964-5.

Last updated: 1996-09-15

[Proc FJCC 18:117-136, AFIPS (Fall 1960)].

Last updated: 1996-09-16

Nearby terms:

TABLOGtab-separated valuesTABSOLTabulating Machine CompanyTAC

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Tabulating Machine Company

<company>

The company founded in 1896 by Herman Hollerith to exploit his invention of the punched card. It became part of IBM in 1924.

Last updated: 1996-01-02

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tab-separated valuesTABSOLTabulating Machine CompanyTACTACL

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TAC

1. Translator Assembler-Compiler. For Philco 2000.

2. Terminal Access Controller.

Nearby terms:

TABSOLTabulating Machine CompanyTACTACLTACPOLTactile User Interface

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TACL

Tandem Advanced Command Language. Tandem, about 1987. The shell language used in Tandem computers.

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Tabulating Machine CompanyTACTACLTACPOLTactile User Interface

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TACPOL

<language>

A PL/I-like language used by the US Army for command and control.

Last updated: 2001-01-31

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TACTACLTACPOLTactile User InterfacetagTagged Image File Format

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Tactile User Interface

<interface>

(TUI) Hardware and software to provide access to computer-based graphical[?] information using touch, often intended for blind people. See also haptics.

Last updated: 2003-10-17

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TACLTACPOLTactile User InterfacetagTagged Image File Format

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tag

<language, text>

An SGML, HTML, or XML token representing the beginning (start tag: "<p ...>") or end (end tag: "</p>") of an element. In normal SGML syntax (and always in XML), a tag starts with a "<" and ends with an ">".

In HTML jargon, the term "tag" is often used for an "element".

Last updated: 2001-01-31

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Tactile User InterfacetagTagged Image File Formattagged queueing

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Tagged Image File Format

<file format, graphics>

(TIFF) A file format used for still-image bitmaps, stored in tagged fields. Application programs can use the tags to accept or ignore fields, depending on their capabilities.

While TIFF was designed to be extensible, it lacked a core of useful functionality, so that most useful functions (e.g. lossless 24-bit colour) requires nonstandard, often redundant, extensions. The incompatibility of extensions has led some to expand "TIFF" as "Thousands of Incompatible File Formats".

Compare GIF, PNG, JPEG.

Last updated: 1997-10-11

Nearby terms:

Tactile User InterfacetagTagged Image File Formattagged queueingtagged types

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tagged queueing

<hardware>

A method allowing a device or controller to process commands received from a device driver out of order. It requires that the device driver attaches a tag to each command which the controller or device can later use to identify the response to the command.

Tagged queueing can speed up processing considerably if a controller serves devices of very different speeds, such as an SCSI controller serving a mix of CD-ROMs and high-speed disks. In such cases if a request to fetch data from the CD-ROM is shortly followed by a request to read from the disk, the controller doesn't have to wait for the CD-ROM to fetch the data, it can instead instruct the disk to fetch the data and return the value to the device driver, while the CD-ROM is probably still seeking.

Last updated: 1997-07-04

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Tagged Image File Formattagged queueingtagged typestag name

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tagged types

<programming>

Ada's type mechanism in which types can be extended via single inheritance.

Last updated: 2000-02-21

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tagged queueingtagged typestag nametail call optimisation

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tag name

generic identifier

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tagged typestag nametail call optimisationtail call optimization

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tail call optimisation

last call optimisation

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tag nametail call optimisationtail call optimizationtail circuit

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tail call optimization

last call optimisation

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tail call optimisationtail call optimizationtail circuittail recursion

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tail circuit

<communications>

A circuit which connects the serial lines of two modems together.

[Why do that?]

Last updated: 1996-10-16

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tail call optimizationtail circuittail recursiontail recursion modulo cons

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tail recursion

<programming>

When the last thing a function (or procedure) does is to call itself. Such a function is called tail recursive. A function may make several recursive calls but a call is only tail-recursive if the caller returns immediately after it. E.g.

	f n = if n < 2 then 1 else f (f (n-2) + 1)

In this example both calls to f are recursive but only the outer one is tail recursive.

Tail recursion is a useful property because it enables tail recursion optimisation.

If you aren't sick of them already, see recursion and tail recursion.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2006-04-16

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tail circuittail recursiontail recursion modulo constail recursion optimisation

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tail recursion modulo cons

<programming, compiler>

A generalisation of tail recursion introduced by D.H.D. Warren. It applies when the last thing a function does is to apply a constructor functions (e.g. cons) to an application of a non-primitive function. This is transformed into a tail call to the function which is also passed a pointer to where its result should be written. E.g.

	f []     = []
	f (x:xs) = 1 : f xs

is transformed into (pseudo C/Haskell):

	f [] = []
	f l  = f' l allocate_cons

	f' []     p = { *p = nil;
			return *p
		      }
	f' (x:xs) p = { cell = allocate_cons;
		        *p = cell;
			cell.head = 1;
			return f' xs &cell.tail
		      }

where allocate_cons returns the address of a new cons cell, *p is the location pointed to by p and &c is the address of c.

[D.H.D. Warren, DAI Research Report 141, University of Edinburgh 1980].

Last updated: 1995-03-06

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tail recursiontail recursion modulo constail recursion optimisation

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tail recursion optimisation

<programming>

(TRO) Discarding the calling environment (call stack frame) when the last thing a function or procedure does is to call itself. This is important when a procedure calls itself recursively many times since, without tail recursion optimisation, the environments of earlier invocations would fill up the memory only to be discarded when (if) the last call terminated.

Tail recursion optimisation is a special case of last call optimisation but it allows the further optimisation that some arguments may be passed in situ, possibly in registers. It allows recursive functions to be compiled into iterative loops.

See also conversion to iteration, tail recursion modulo cons.

Last updated: 2006-04-16

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tail recursion modulo constail recursion optimisationtail-strict

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tail-strict

A tail-strict function evaluates every cons cell in its (list) argument. It will therefore fail to terminate if its argument is an infinite list or if any tail of its argument fails to terminate. The archetypal tail-strict function is length. See also Head-strict, Hyper-strict.

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tail recursion modulo constail recursion optimisationtail-strictTALTALE

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TAL

Transaction Application Language

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tail recursion optimisationtail-strictTALTALETaligenttalk

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TALE

Typed Applicative Language Experiment. M. van Leeuwen. Lazy, purely applicative, polymorphic. Based on typed second order lambda-calculus. "Functional Programming and the Language TALE", H.P. Barendregt et al, in Current Trends in Concurrency, LNCS 224, Springer 1986, pp.122-207.

Nearby terms:

tail recursion optimisationtail-strictTALTALETaligenttalktalk bomb

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Taligent

A company founded jointly by Apple and IBM in March 1992. HP announced in January, 1994 that it would buy a 15% stake in Taligent. They are working on an "object-oriented operating system", due to be finished sometime in 1995. However, various independent pieces of Taligent will likely appear to be used with other operating systems, e.g. IBM's WorkplaceOS. Pink is an older name for Taligent, dating back to work that Apple did before the formation of Taligent.

Nearby terms:

tail-strictTALTALETaligenttalktalk bombtalker systemtalk mode

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talk

<chat, tool, networking, messaging>

A Unix program and protocol supporting conversation between two or more users who may be logged into the same computer or different computers on a network. Variants include ntalk, ytalk, and ports or emulators of these programs for other platforms.

Unix has the talk program and protocol and its variants xtalk and ytalk for the X Window System; VMS has phone; Windows for Workgroups has chat. ITS also has a talk system. These split the screen into separate areas for each user.

Unix's write command can also be used, though it does not attempt to separate input and output on the screen.

Users of such systems are said to be in talk mode which has many conventional abbreviations and idioms. Most of these survived into chat jargon, but many fell out of common use with the migration of user prattle from talk-like systems to chat systems in the early 1990s. These disused talk-specific forms include:

"BYE?" - are you ready to close the conversation? This is the standard way to end a talk-mode conversation; the other person types "BYE" to confirm, or else continues the conversation.

"JAM"/"MIN" - just a minute

"O" - "over" (I have stopped talking). Also "/" as in x/y - x over y, or two newlines (the latter being the most common).

"OO" - "over and out" - end of conversation.

"\" - Greek lambda.

"R U THERE?" - are you there?

"SEC" - wait a second.

"/\/\/" - laughter. But on a MUD, this usually means "earthquake fault".

See also talk bomb.

Last updated: 1998-01-25

Nearby terms:

TALTALETaligenttalktalk bombtalker systemtalk modeTALL

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talk bomb

flash

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TALETaligenttalktalk bombtalker systemtalk modeTALLtall card

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talker system

talk

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Taligenttalktalk bombtalker systemtalk modeTALLtall card

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talk mode

<chat>

Using a talk system. E.g., "B1FF had me in talk mode for hours last night. I had to bring his box down just to get him to shut up."

The (1980s?) term now is as dated as talk itself which has been largely replaced by chat.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1998-01-19

Nearby terms:

talk bombtalker systemtalk modeTALLtall cardTandem Application Language

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TALL

<language>

TAC List Language.

["TALL - A List Processor for the Philco 2000", J. Feldman, CACM 5(9):484-485 (Sep 1962)].

Last updated: 1995-03-01

Nearby terms:

talker systemtalk modeTALLtall cardTandem Application Language

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tall card

<hardware>

An expansion card for the IBM PC AT. These can be larger than IBM PC or IBM PC XT cards because the AT case is bigger.

When IBM introduced the PS/2 model 30 (its last gasp at supporting the ISA) they made the case lower and many industry-standard tall cards wouldn't fit. This was felt to be a reincarnation of the connector conspiracy, done with less style.

See also short card.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-03-01

Nearby terms:

TALLtall cardTandem Application LanguageTandem Computers

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Tandem Application Language

Transaction Application Language

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tall cardTandem Application LanguageTandem ComputersTandy

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Tandem Computers

<company>

A US computer manufacturer.

Quarterly sales $544M, profits $49M (Aug 1994).

Last updated: 1994-09-26

Nearby terms:

Tandem Application LanguageTandem ComputersTandyTanenbaum, Andrew

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Tandy

<company>

A US company, the parent company of Radio Shack, makers of the TRS-80 and other early personal computers.

Last updated: 1995-02-28

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Tandem ComputersTandyTanenbaum, AndrewTangible User Interface

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Tanenbaum, Andrew

Andrew Tanenbaum

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Tandem ComputersTandyTanenbaum, AndrewTangible User Interfacetanked

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Tangible User Interface

<interface>

An attempt to give physical form to digital information, making bits directly manipulable and perceptible by people. Tangible Interfaces will make bits accessible through augmented physical surfaces (e.g. walls, desktops, ceilings, windows), graspable objects (e.g. building blocks, models, instruments) and ambient media (e.g. light, sound, airflow, water-flow, kinetic sculpture) within physical environments.

MIT Tangible Media Group.

Last updated: 2003-10-17

Nearby terms:

TandyTanenbaum, AndrewTangible User InterfacetankedTANSTAAFL

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tanked

<jargon>

1. Same as down, used primarily by Unix hackers.

See also hosed.

2. Popularised as a synonym for "drunk" by Steve Dallas in the late lamented "Bloom County" comic strip.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-28

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Tanenbaum, AndrewTangible User InterfacetankedTANSTAAFLTAO

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TANSTAAFL

/tan'stah-fl/ (From Robert Heinlein's classic "The Moon is a Harsh Mistress") "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch".

Often invoked when someone is balking at the prospect of using an unpleasantly heavyweight technique, or at the poor quality of some piece of free software, or at the signal-to-noise ratio of unmoderated Usenet newsgroups. "What? Don't tell me I have to implement a database back end to get my address book program to work!" "Well, TANSTAAFL you know." This phrase owes some of its popularity to the high concentration of science-fiction fans and political libertarians in hackerdom.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-28

Nearby terms:

Tanenbaum, AndrewTangible User InterfacetankedTANSTAAFLTAOTAOSTAP

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TAO

<language>

1. A Lisp dialect with concurrency, object-orientation and logic.

["Concurrent Programming in TAO - Practice and Experience", I. Takeuchi in Parallel Lisp: Languages and Systems, T. Ito et al eds, LNCS 441, Springer 1989, pp. 271-299].

Last updated: 2006-02-06

2. A programming language for APE/Quadrics parallel computers, largely modelled on FORTRAN and evolved from the even more primitive APESE language. TAO is particularly hard to work with, due to the lack of systematics, poor documentation and a primitive compiler.

[Reference? Dates?]

Last updated: 2006-02-06

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Tangible User InterfacetankedTANSTAAFLTAOTAOSTAPtaptape

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TAOS

Technology for Autonomous Operation Survivability

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Tangible User InterfacetankedTANSTAAFLTAOTAOSTAPtaptapetape archive

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TAP

Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol

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tankedTANSTAAFLTAOTAOSTAPtaptapetape archivetape drive

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tap

hit

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TANSTAAFLTAOTAOSTAPtaptapetape archivetape drivetape head

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tape

1. magnetic tape.

2. paper tape.

Last updated: 1996-05-25

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TAOSTAPtaptapetape archivetape drivetape headTape Operating System

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tape archive

tar

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taptapetape archivetape drivetape headTape Operating System

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tape drive

magnetic tape drive

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tapetape archivetape drivetape headTape Operating System

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tape head

<hardware>

The electromagnetic component in a magnetic tape drive which reads and writes magnetic tape as it passes over it. Tape heads need to be cleaned periodically to remove the oxide particles which accumulate on them and can lead to errors.

Last updated: 1997-03-12

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tape archivetape drivetape headTape Operating SystemTAPI

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Tape Operating System

<operating system>

(TOS) An IBM operating system for System 360, used in the early days around 1965 to support the IBM 360 model 30 et al. TOS was a predecessor to IBM's Disk Operating System.

TOS died out really early as disks such as the 2311 and 2314 became common with the IBM 360 whereas thet had been a real luxury on the IBM 7090.

[Relationship to BOS?]

Last updated: 1999-01-20

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tape drivetape headTape Operating SystemTAPItartar and feather

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TAPI

Telephony Application Programming Interface

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tape headTape Operating SystemTAPItartar and feathertarball

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tar

<file format>

("Tape ARchive", following ar) Unix's general purpose archive utility and the file format it uses. Tar was originally intended for use with magnetic tape but, though it has several command line options related to tape, it is now used more often for packaging files together on other media, e.g. for distribution via the Internet.

The resulting archive, a "tar file" (humourously, "tarball") is often compressed, using gzip or some other form of compression (see tar and feather).

There is a GNU version of tar called gnutar with several improvements over the standard versions.

Filename extension: .tar

MIME type: unregistered, but commonly application/x-tar

Unix manual page: tar(1).

Compare shar, zip.

Last updated: 1998-05-02

Nearby terms:

Tape Operating SystemTAPItartar and feathertarballtarga

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tar and feather

<jargon>

(A sick contrivance from the Unix tar command and the Ku Klux Klan torture method) To create a transportable archive from a group of files by first sticking them together with tar (the Tape ARchiver) and then compressing the result. The latter action is dubbed "feathering" (purely for contrived effect) by analogy to what you do with an aeroplane propeller to decrease wind resistance, or with an oar to reduce water resistance; smaller files, after all, slip through comm links more easily.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1997-05-26

Nearby terms:

TAPItartar and feathertarballtargaTarga Graphics Adaptor

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tarball

tar

Nearby terms:

tartar and feathertarballtargaTarga Graphics Adaptortarget

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targa

<graphics, file format>

A graphics data format for bitmap images. It uses 24 bits per pixel and is a common output format for ray tracing programs.

Last updated: 1995-01-05

Nearby terms:

tar and feathertarballtargaTarga Graphics Adaptortarget

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Targa Graphics Adaptor

<graphics, file format>

(TGA) The Truevision Targa Graphics Adaptor file format.

The TGA format is a common bitmap file format for storage of 24-bit images. It supports colourmaps, alpha channels, compression and comments.

Filename extension: .tga.

More information is available from Truevision and The Graphics File Format Page.

[What does it have to do with graphics adaptors?]

Last updated: 1997-08-07

Nearby terms:

targaTarga Graphics AdaptortargetTarget-Machine Description Language

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target

SCSI target

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Targa Graphics AdaptortargetTarget-Machine Description Language

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Target-Machine Description Language

(TMDL) The machine-description language used in the Graham-Glanville code generator.

["Table-Driven Code Generation", S.L. Graham, IEEE Computer 13(8):25-34 (Aug 1980)].

Last updated: 1995-02-21

Nearby terms:

Targa Graphics AdaptortargetTarget-Machine Description LanguageTARTANtaskbar

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TARTAN

A simple language proposed to meet the Ironman requirements.

["TARTAN - Language Design for the Ironman Requirements: Reference Manual", Mary Shaw et al, SIGPLAN Notices 13(9):36-58 (Sep 1978)].

Last updated: 1995-01-05

Nearby terms:

Target-Machine Description LanguageTARTANtaskbarTask Control Block

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taskbar

<operating system>

The part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface (GUI) typically occupying a fixed strip along the bottom of the screen, showing a rectangular icon for each running application.

The taskbar also contains the Start menu at its left-hand end and the notification area at the right-hand end. Other toolbars can be added such as the Quick Launch toolbar.

Clicking an application's taskbar icon makes its windows visible in front of other windows and gives one of them the input focus, or if it is already in front, minimises it. Right-clicking an icon gives a window manager menu, possibly customised by the application. Right-clicking the taskbar itself performs global window manager actions such as minimising all windows and also allows you to set taskbar properties. The taskbar can be locked in position or resized or dragged to the top, left or right of the screen.

Last updated: 2007-06-13

Nearby terms:

Target-Machine Description LanguageTARTANtaskbarTask Control Blocktask scheduling

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Task Control Block

<architecture>

An MVS control block used to communicate information about tasks within an address space that are connected to an MVS subsystem such as MQSeries for MVS/ESA or CICS.

FAQ.

Last updated: 2000-12-30

Nearby terms:

TARTANtaskbarTask Control Blocktask schedulingTASMTASS

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task scheduling

<algorithm>

The assignment of start and end times to a set of tasks, subject to certain constraints. Constraints are typically either time constraints (the payload must be installed before the payload bay doors are closed) or resource constraints (this task requires a small crane and a crane operator).

In the case where the tasks are programs to run concurrently on a computer, this is also known as multitasking.

Last updated: 1998-04-25

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TARTANtaskbarTask Control Blocktask schedulingTASMTASStaste

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TASM

Turbo Assembler. MS-DOS assembler from Borland.

Nearby terms:

taskbarTask Control Blocktask schedulingTASMTASStastetatar

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TASS

Template ASSembly language. Intermediate language produced by the Manchester SISAL compiler.

Nearby terms:

Task Control Blocktask schedulingTASMTASStastetatartau

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taste

1. (primarily MIT) The quality of a program that tends to be inversely proportional to the number of features, hacks, and kluges it contains. Taste refers to sound judgment on the part of the creator. See also elegant, flavour.

2. Alternative spelling of "tayste".

[Jargon File]

Nearby terms:

task schedulingTASMTASStastetatartautautological probability

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tatar

<human language>

A Turkic language spoken by about five million Tatars in Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and elsewhere; the official language of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation).

language codes: tt, tat.

Last updated: 2006-12-11

Nearby terms:

TASStastetatartautautological probabilitytautological set

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tau

<mathematics>

The mathematical constant that is the circumference of a circle divided by its radius, equal to twice pi.

Some have suggested that pi is the wrong choice of constant to describe the geometry of circles etc. and tau = 2*pi would have been better. Most practising mathematicians think this is silly. The xkcd comic strip facetiously proposed a compromise of 1.5*pi or "pau".

The Pi Manifesto.

Last updated: 2013-12-10

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tautological probability

<logic>

A notion introduced by Florentin Smarandache whereby the probability of some event is more than one. Tautological probability is used for universally true propositions, i.e. those which do not depend on time, space, subjectivity, etc.

[Florentin Smarandache, "A Unifying Field in Logics. / Neutrosophy: Neutrosophic Probability, Set, and Logic", American Research Press, Rehoboth 1999].

Last updated: 2001-04-06

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tautological set

<logic>

A notion introduced by Florentin Smarandache: An element x(T, I, F) belongs more than sure to the set M; here T, I, F are real subsets representing the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity percentages respectively, and sup(T)>100.

tautological set are used for universally true propositions where no parameter such as time, space, or subjectivity influences the truth value.

[Florentin Smarandache, "A Unifying Field in Logics. / Neutrosophy: Neutrosophic Probability, Set, and Logic", American Research Press, Rehoboth, 1999]

Last updated: 1999-11-24

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tautology

<logic>

A proposition which is always true.

Compare: paradox.

The Linguistic Smarandache Tautologies,.

Last updated: 1999-07-28

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TAWK

Tiny AWK

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Taxis

["A Language Facility for Designing Database-Intensive Applications", J. Mylopoulos et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 5(2):185-207 (June 1980)].

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tayste

crumb

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taz

tgz

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TB

terabyte

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TBF

Mean Time Between Failures

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TBIL

Tiny Basic Interpreter Language

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TBK

Tool Builder Kit

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Tbl

1. A language by M.E. Lesk for formatting tables, implemented as a preprocessor to nroff.

Last updated: 1994-11-01

2. Table Building Language. A simple language by Robert Freiburghouse of MIT which combines user-defined actions into an abstract machine. It can be used to build table-driven predictive parsers and code generators in the MULTICS Fortran compiler and several PL/I compilers, including VAX-11 PL/I.

["Engineering A Compiler: VAX-11 Code Generation and Optimisation", P. Anklam et al, Digital Press 1977].

Last updated: 1994-11-01

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tc

<networking>

The country code for the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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T-carrier system

<communications>

A series of wideband digital data transmission formats originally developed by the Bell System and used in North America and Japan.

The basic unit of the T-carrier system is the DS0, which has a transmission rate of 64 Kbps, and is commonly used for one voice circuit.

Originally the 1.544 megabit per second T1 format carried 24 pulse-code modulated, time-division multiplexed speech signals each encoded in 64 kilobit per second streams, leaving 8 kilobits per second of framing information which facilitates the synchronisation and demultiplexing at the receiver. T2 and T3 circuits channels carry multiple T1 channels multiplexed, resulting in transmission rates of up to 44.736 Mbps.

The T-carrier system uses in-band signaling, resulting in lower transmission rates than the E-carrier system. It uses a restored polar signal with 303-type data stations.

Asynchronous signals can be transmitted via a standard which encodes each change of level into three bits; two which indicate the time (within the current synchronous frame) at which the transition occurred, and the third which indicates the direction of the transition. Although wasteful of line bandwidth, such use is usually only over small distances.

T1 lines are made free of direct current signal components by in effect capacitor coupling the signal at the transmitter and restoring that lost component with a "slicer" at the receiver, leading to the description "restored polar".

[Telecommunications Transmission Engineering, Vol. 2, Facilities, AT&T, 1977].

Last updated: 2001-04-08

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TCB

<jargon>

1. Trouble Came Back.

<security>

2. (Orange Book) Trusted Computing Base.

<operating system>

3. Task Control Block.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1998-07-02

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TCGS

Twente Compiler Generator System

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TC/IX

The LynxOS kernel ported to the MIPS R3000 RISC processor by CDC.

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Tcl

Tool Command Language

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Tcl Consortium

<body>

A non-profit agency dedicated to promoting Tcl.

http://tclconsortium.org/.

Last updated: 1998-11-27

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tcl-debug

A debugger for Tcl by Don Libes <libes@cme.nist.gov> that can be easily embedded in other applications. It is included with many other Tcl libraries.

ftp://ftp.cme.nist.gov/pub/expect/tcl-debug.tar.Z.

Last updated: 1994-10-31

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Tcl-DP

Tcl-DP extends Tcl's "send" by removing the restriction that you can only send to other clients of the same X11 server. Version 3.0 library by Larry Rowe.

ftp://toe.cs.berkeley.edu/pub/multimedia/Tcl-DP.

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tclhttpd

<tool>

An embeddable Tcl-based web server.

[Details?]

Last updated: 1998-11-27

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TclX

Extended Tcl

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TCM

Trellis Code Modulation

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TCO

Total Cost of Ownership

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Tcode

Intermediate language used by the Spineless Tagless G-machine (an abstract machine based on graph reduction) designed as a target for compilation of non-strict functional languages. "The Spineless tagless G- machine", S. Peyton Jones et al, Fourth Intl Conf Func Prog Langs and Comp Arch pp.184-201, ACM Sept 1989.

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TCOL

CMU. Tree-based intermediate representation produced by the PQCC compiler generator. "An Overview of the Production Quality Compiler- Compiler Projects", B.W. Leverett et al, IEEE Computer 13(8): 38-49 (Aug 1980). (See LG).

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TCOL.Ada

CMU, 1980. An intermediate representation for Ada, was merged with AIDA to form Diana. "TCOL.Ada: Revised Report on an Intermediate Representation for the DOD Standard Programming Language", J.M. Newcomer et al, CMU-CS-79-128 (June 1979).

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TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

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TCPIP

Normally written "TCP/IP".

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TCP/IP

<protocol>

Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol.

The de facto standard Ethernet protocols incorporated into 4.2BSD Unix. TCP/IP was developed by DARPA for internetworking and encompasses both network layer and transport layer protocols. While TCP and IP specify two protocols at specific protocol layers, TCP/IP is often used to refer to the entire DoD protocol suite based upon these, including telnet, FTP, UDP and RDP.

See also ICMP, SMTP, SNMP.

Last updated: 1995-03-17

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tcsh

<Unix, operating system>

A Unix shell by Christos Zoulas <christos@ee.cornell.edu>, based on csh. tcsh adds WYSIWYG command line editing, command name completion, input history and various other features.

Version 6.04 runs under many versions of Unix and under OpenVMS. tcsh has been largely replaced by bash.

ftp://ftp.spc.edu/.

Last updated: 2014-09-14

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Tcsim

Time Complex Simulator

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TCVN 5773

<human language, standard>

A 1993 Vietnamese character standard that includes Han characters.

Last updated: 2001-01-02

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TCVN 6056

<human language, standard>

A 1995 Vietnamese character standard that includes Han characters.

Last updated: 2001-01-02

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td

<networking>

The country code for Chad.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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TDD

<testing>

1. test-driven development.

<communications>

2. Telecommunications Device for the Deaf.

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TDEL

thick film dielectric electroluminescence

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TDF

<language>

An intermediate language, a close relative of ANDF. A TDF program is an ASCII stream describing an abstract syntax tree.

TDF became part of TenDRA in abut 2001.

["TDF Specification", Defence Research Agency/Electronics Division, Great Malvern, England, +44 684 895314].

Last updated: 2003-05-13

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TCVN 5773TCVN 6056tdTDDTDELTDFTDFLTDITDMTDMATDRTeamwork

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TDFL

Dataflow language. "TDFL: A Task-Level Dataflow Language", P. Suhler et al, J Parallel Dist Comp 9(2):103-115 (Jun 1990).

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TDI

Transport Driver Interface

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TDM

1. Technical Data Management

2. Time Division Multiplexing

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TDMA

time division multiple access

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TDR

time domain reflectometer

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Teamwork

<product, software, tool>

A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations.

Teamwork was abandoned when Computer Associates acquired Sterling Software in March 2000.

Last updated: 2002-05-29

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Technical/Office Protocol

(TOP) An applications layer network application and protocol stack for office automation developed by Boeing following the OSI model. This protocol is very similar to MAP except at the lowest levels, where it uses Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) rather than Token Bus (IEEE 802.4).

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TDRTeamworkTechnical/Office ProtocolTechniontechnologyTechnology Enabled Relationship Manager

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Technion

<body>

Israel Institute of Technology.

http://technion.ac.il/.

ftp://ftp.technion.ac.il/.

Address: Haifa, Israel.

Last updated: 1995-05-09

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technology

<jargon>

Marketroid jargon for "software", "hardware", "protocol" or something else too technical to name.

The most flagrant abuse of this word has to be "Windows NT" (New Technology) - Microsoft's attempt to make the incorporation of some ancient concepts into their OS sound like real progress. The irony, and even the meaning, of this seems to be utterly lost on Microsoft whose Windows 2000 start-up screen proclaims "Based on NT Technology", (meaning yet another version of NT, including some Windows 95 features at last).

See also: solution.

Last updated: 2001-06-28

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Technology Enabled Relationship Manager

Customer Relationship Management

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Technology of Object-Oriented Languages and Systems

<event>

(TOOLS) One of the oldest object-oriented conferences, with 18 published proceedings volumes. TOOLS is organised by Interactive Software Engineering.

Last updated: 1995-12-29

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TechRef

/tek'ref/ [MS-DOS] The original "IBM PC Technical Reference Manual", including the BIOS listing and complete schematics for the PC. The only PC documentation in the issue package that's considered serious by real hackers.

[Jargon File]

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TECO

<editor, text>

/tee'koh/ (Originally an acronym for "[paper] Tape Editor and COrrector"; later, "Text Editor and COrrector"]) A text editor developed at MIT and modified by just about everybody. With all the dialects included, TECO may have been the most prolific editor in use before Emacs, to which it was directly ancestral. The first Emacs editor was written in TECO.

It was noted for its powerful programming-language-like features and its unspeakably hairy syntax (see write-only language). TECO programs are said to resemble line noise. Every string of characters is a valid TECO program (though probably not a useful one); one common game used to be predict what the TECO commands corresponding to human names did.

As an example of TECO's obscurity, here is a TECO program that takes a list of names such as:

	Loser, J. Random
	Quux, The Great
	Dick, Moby

sorts them alphabetically according to surname, and then puts the surname last, removing the comma, to produce the following:

	Moby Dick
	J. Random Loser
	The Great Quux

The program is

	[1 J^P$L$$
	J <.-Z; .,(S,$ -D .)FX1 @F^B $K :L I $ G1 L>$$

(where ^B means "Control-B" (ASCII 0000010) and $ is actually an alt or escape (ASCII 0011011) character).

In fact, this very program was used to produce the second, sorted list from the first list. The first hack at it had a bug: GLS (the author) had accidentally omitted the "@" in front of "F^B", which as anyone can see is clearly the Wrong Thing. It worked fine the second time. There is no space to describe all the features of TECO, but "^P" means "sort" and "J<.-Z; ... L>" is an idiomatic series of commands for "do once for every line".

By 1991, Emacs had replaced TECO in hacker's affections but descendants of an early (and somewhat lobotomised) version adopted by DEC can still be found lurking on VMS and a couple of crufty PDP-11 operating systems, and ports of the more advanced MIT versions remain the focus of some antiquarian interest.

See also retrocomputing.

ftp://usc.edu/ for VAX/VMS, Unix, MS-DOS, Macintosh, Amiga.

[Authro? Home page?]

Last updated: 2001-03-26

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tee

<tool, operating system>

A Unix command which copies its standard input to its standard output (like cat) but also to a file given as its argument. tee is thus useful in pipelines of Unix commands (see plumbing) where it allows you to create a duplicate copy of the data stream. E.g.

	egrep Unix Dictionary | tee /dev/tty | wc -l

searches for lines containing the string "Unix" in the file "Dictionary", prints them to the terminal (/dev/tty) and counts them.

Unix manual page: tee(1).

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1996-01-22

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TEI

<communications>

1. Terminal Endpoint Identifier.

<text, project>

2. Text Encoding Initiative.

Last updated: 1997-03-11

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telco

<communications, company>

(from telephone company) A company providing phone services to end users. The company may or may not provide other phone services such operating long-distance/international backbones but the name telco usually emphasises its operation as a local service provider.

Compare: PTT.

Last updated: 1998-05-18

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TELCOMP

<language>

A variant of JOSS.

[Sammet 1969, p.217].

Last updated: 1997-04-07

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Telecommunication Display Device

Telecommunications Device for the Deaf

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Telecommunications Device for the Deaf

<communications>

(TDD) A terminal device used widely by deaf people for text communication over telephone lines.

The acronym TDD is sometimes expanded as "Telecommunication Display Device" but is generally considered to be derived from "Telecommunications Device for the Deaf". The deaf themselves do not usually use the term "TDD", but prefer simply "TTY" -- possibly the original term. The ambiguity between this and the other meanings of "TTY" is generally not problematic. The acronym "TTD" is also common [Teletype for the deaf?].

The standard most used by TDDs is reportedly a survivor of Baudot code. It uses asynchronous transmission of 1400 Hz and 1600 Hz tones at 45.5 or 50 baud, with one start bit, 5 data bits and 1.5 stop bits. This is generally incompatible with standard modems.

A typical TDD is a device about the size of a small laptop computer (resembling, in fact, a circa 1983 Radio Shack Model 100 computer) with a QWERTY keyboard, and small screen (often one line high, often made of an array of LEDs). There is often a small printer for making transcripts of terminal sessions. An acoustic coupler connects it to the telephone handset.

With the falling cost of personal computers and the widespread use of Internet talk systems, there is now little reason to use this Stone Age technology.

[Standards? i18n?]

Last updated: 2006-10-08

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Telecommunications Industry Association

<body, standard>

(TIA) An association that sets standards for communications cabling.

Cables that TIA set standards for include: EIA/TIA-568A and EIA/TIA-568B category three, four and five cable.

http://tiaonline.org/.

[Details?]

Last updated: 2000-04-24

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telecommuting

The practice of working at home and communicating with your fellow workers through the phone, typically with a computer and modem. Telecommuting saves the employee getting to and from work and saves the employer from supplying support services such as heating and cleaning, but it can also deprive the worker of social contact and support.

Last updated: 1995-01-05

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teledildonics

<application, virtual reality>

/tel"*-dil-do"-niks/ Sex in a computer simulated virtual reality, especially computer-mediated sexual interaction between the VR presences of two humans. This practice is not yet possible except in the rather limited form of erotic conversation on MUDs and the like. The term, however, is widely recognised in the VR community as a ha ha only serious projection of things to come. "When we can sustain a multi-sensory surround good enough for teledildonics, *then* we'll know we're getting somewhere."

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-06

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Telecommunications Industry Associationtelecommutingteledildonicstelegraphytelematics

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telegraphy

<communications, history>

A historical term for communication, either wired or wireless, using Morse code. The term is used in contrast with telephony meaning voice transmission. Telegraphy is sometimes (somewhat incorrectly) referred to as "continuous wave" or CW transmission.

Last updated: 2009-11-24

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telematics

The combination of telecommunications and computing. Data communications between systems and devices.

Last updated: 1995-02-07

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TelEnet

The old name for Sprintnet. TELENET used to provide a service called PC Pursuit.

Not to be confused with telnet the program and protocol.

Last updated: 1994-10-17

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telematicsTelEnetTELEPACTelephone Application Program Interface

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TELEPAC

<networking>

The Swiss PTT X.25 network.

Last updated: 1995-11-09

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TelEnetTELEPACTelephone Application Program Interfacetelephony

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Telephone Application Program Interface

<programming, communications>

(TAPI) Officially it's Telephony Application Programming Interface.

Last updated: 1995-11-27

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TELEPACTelephone Application Program InterfacetelephonyTelephony Application Programming Interface

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telephony

<communications>

Communication, often two-way, of spoken information, by means of electrical signals carried by wires or radio waves. The term was used to indicate transmission of the voice, as opposed to telegraphy (done in Morse code and usually called "continuous wave" or CW transmission), radio teletypewriter (RTTY) transmission (also called FSK for "Frequency Shift Keying", the modulation scheme used by such machines), and later, facimile.

Last updated: 1995-03-14

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Telephony Application Programming Interface

<programming, communications>

(TAPI, or "Telephone Application Program Interface") A Windows 95 Application Program Interface enabling hardware independent access to telephone based communication. TAPI covers a rather wide area of services from initialising the equipment (e.g. a modem) and placing a call to voice mail or control of a remote computer.

[Telephone or Telephony?]

Last updated: 1995-12-05

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Telephony User Interface

<communications>

(TUI) Either a software interface to telephony (e.g. a phone-capable PC) or a DTMF-based interface to software (e.g. voicemail).

Last updated: 2003-10-21

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Telephony Application Programming InterfaceTelephony User InterfaceTelerat

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Telerat

<abuse, hardware>

/tel'*-rat/ Unflattering hackerism for "Teleray", a line of extremely losing terminals.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-01-19

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Telephony User InterfaceTeleratTelescope User InterfaceTelescript

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Telescope User Interface

<hardware, interface>

(TUI) A remote control interface for a telescope.

Last updated: 2003-10-21

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Telephony User InterfaceTeleratTelescope User InterfaceTelescriptTeletype

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Telescript

A communications-oriented programming language using "active software agents", released by General Magic in 1994. What PostScript did for cross-platform, device-independent documents, Telescript aims to do for cross-platform, network-independent messaging. Telescript protects programmers from many of the complexities of network protocols.

Last updated: 1995-01-16

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TeleratTelescope User InterfaceTelescriptTeletypeteletype

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Teletype

<hardware, product>

(tty) A trademark for a hard-copy teletypewriter produced by Teletype Corporation.

Last updated: 2000-04-02

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teletype

teletypewriter

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Teletype Corporation

<company>

The company which made Teletype teletypewriters.

Address: Skokie, Illinois, USA.

Last updated: 2000-04-03

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TeletypeteletypeTeletype CorporationteletypewriterTeleUSE

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teletypewriter

<hardware>

(Nearly always abbreviated to "teletype" or "tty") An obsolete kind of terminal, with a noisy mechanical printer for output, a very limited character set, and poor print quality.

See also bit-paired keyboard.

Last updated: 2000-04-02

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teletypeTeletype CorporationteletypewriterTeleUSEtelevision

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TeleUSE

An interface builder for Motif.

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teletypewriterTeleUSEtelevisionTelevision Interface Adaptor

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television

<hardware>

A dedicated push media device for receiving streaming video and audio, either by terrestrial radio broadcast, satellite or cable.

Last updated: 1997-11-23

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teletypewriterTeleUSEtelevisionTelevision Interface AdaptorTELNET

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Television Interface Adaptor

<hardware, graphics>

(TIA) The graphics chip in the Atari 2600, also used as a sound chip for some arcade game.

Last updated: 1999-12-06

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televisionTelevision Interface AdaptorTELNETTelocator Alphanumeric Protocol

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TELNET

/tel'net/ 1. The Internet standard protocol for remote login. Runs on top of TCP/IP. Defined in STD 8, RFC 854 and extended with options by many other RFCs. Unix BSD networking software includes a program, telnet, which uses the protocol and acts as a terminal emulator for the remote login session. Sometimes abbreviated to TN. TOPS-10 had a similar program called IMPCOM.

2. The US nationwide network into which one dials to access CompuServe. It was created by John Goltz, one of the founders and system guru of CompuServe. He later worked for Tymshare, one of CompuServe's big competitors.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2004-09-14

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Television Interface AdaptorTELNETTelocator Alphanumeric Protocol

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Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol

<communications, protocol>

(TAP, or "IXO", "PET") A protocol for submitting requests to a pager service. IXO/TAP is an ASCII-based, half-duplex protocol that allows the submission of a numeric or alphanumeric message.

Examples, protocol description, clarifications.

See also RFC 1568.

Last updated: 1996-04-07

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Television Interface AdaptorTELNETTelocator Alphanumeric ProtocolTelonTELOS

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Telon

CA-Telon

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TELNETTelocator Alphanumeric ProtocolTelonTELOSTELSIMtemplate

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TELOS

1. The LeLisp Version 16 Object System. Also used in EuLisp. The object-oriented core of EuLisp. Incorporates ideas from CLOS, ObjVLisp and OakLisp. Total merging of types with classes and message-passing with normal function application.

2. A Pascal-based AI language.

["Design Rationale for TELOS, a Pascal-based AI Language", Travis et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(8) (Aug 1977)].

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Telocator Alphanumeric ProtocolTelonTELOSTELSIMtemplate

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TELSIM

Busch, ca 1966. Digital simulation.

[Sammet 1969, p. 627].

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Telocator Alphanumeric ProtocolTelonTELOSTELSIMtemplatetemplate codetemplate wizard

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template

<text>

A document that contains parameters, identified by some special syntax, that are replaced by actual arguments by the template processing system. For example:

 Dear <guest>, <host> would like to invite you
 to a party at <location> on <date> at <time>.

Where the words in angle brackets are the parameters to be replaced by the name of an actual guest, etc.

More sophisticated systems allow repetition, where a section is repeated in a single output document using a list of inputs; conditional sections or (nested) inclusion of other templates.

See also class template.

Last updated: 2007-10-14

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TELOSTELSIMtemplatetemplate codetemplate wizardTEMPLOG

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template code

<programming>

Pseudocode generated by an automated CASE system and requiring further hand-coding before compilation.

Last updated: 2008-10-22

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TELSIMtemplatetemplate codetemplate wizardTEMPLOGTEMPO

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template wizard

<application>

Software to guide the creation of some kind of template. Examples include Excel's Template Wizard add-in for creating databases to receive form data. Most web authoring tools include facilities for inserting text into template page designs.

Last updated: 2008-10-22

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TELSIMtemplatetemplate codetemplate wizardTEMPLOGTEMPOTempo

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TEMPLOG

Extension of Prolog to handle a clausal subset of first-order temporal logic with discrete time. Proposed by M. Abadi and Z. Manna of Stanford University.

["Temporal Logic in Programming", M. Abadi et al, INtl Symp Logic Prog pp.4-16 (1987)].

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template codetemplate wizardTEMPLOGTEMPOTempotemporal database

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TEMPO

A programming language with simple syntax and semantics designed for teaching semantic and pragmatic aspects of programming languages.

["TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages", N.D. Jones et al, LNCS 66, Springer 1978].

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template wizardTEMPLOGTEMPOTempotemporal databasetemporal logic

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Tempo

<operating system>

The original code name for Mac OS version 8.

Last updated: 1997-10-15

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TEMPLOGTEMPOTempotemporal databasetemporal logicTempura

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temporal database

<database>

A database that can store and retrieve temporal data, that is, data which depends on time in some way.

[More details? Examples?]

Last updated: 1996-05-25

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TEMPLOGTEMPOTempotemporal databasetemporal logicTempuraTen15

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temporal logic

<logic>

An extension of predicate calculus which includes notation for arguing about *when* statements are true. Time is discrete and extends indefinitely into the future. Three prefix operators, represented by a circle, square and diamond mean "is true at the next time instant", "is true from now on" and "is eventually true". x U y means x is true until y is true. x P y means x precedes y.

There are two types of formula: "state formulae" about things true at one point in time, and "path formulae" about things true for a sequence of steps. An example of a path formula is "x U y", and example of a state formula is "next x" or a simple atomic formula such at "waiting".

"true until" in this context means that a state formula holds at every point in time up to a point when another formula holds. "x U y" is the "strong until" and implies that there is a time when y is true. "x W y" is the "weak until" in which it is not necessary that y holds eventually.

There are two types of temporal logic used: branching time and linear time. The basic propositional temporal logic cannot differentiate between the two, though. Linear time considers only one possible future, in branching time you have several alternative futures. In branching temporal logic you have the extra operators "A" (for "all futures") and "E" (for "some future"). For example, "A(work U go_home)" means "I will work until I go home" and "E(work U go_home)" means "I may work until I go home".

Last updated: 1997-01-21

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Tempotemporal databasetemporal logicTempuraTen15tendinitis

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Tempura

Language based on temporal logic. "Executing Temporal Logic Programs", B. Moszkowski, Camb U Press 1986.

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temporal databasetemporal logicTempuraTen15tendinitisTenDRA

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Ten15

<language>

A universal intermediate language, a predecessor to TDF.

Ten15 Home.

["Ten15: An Overview", P. Core et al, Royal Signals Radar Establishment TR 3977, Sept 1986].

[Polymorphic?]

Last updated: 2003-05-13

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temporal logicTempuraTen15tendinitisTenDRAten-finger interface

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tendinitis

overuse strain injury

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TempuraTen15tendinitisTenDRAten-finger interfacetennis elbow

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TenDRA

<language>

TenDRA home.

[Summary?]

Last updated: 2003-05-13

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Ten15tendinitisTenDRAten-finger interfacetennis elbowtense

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ten-finger interface

The interface between two networks that cannot be directly connected for security reasons; refers to the practice of placing two terminals side by side and having an operator read from one and type into the other.

[Jargon File]

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tendinitisTenDRAten-finger interfacetennis elbowtensetensor product

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tennis elbow

overuse strain injury

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TenDRAten-finger interfacetennis elbowtensetensor product

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tense

Of programs, very clever and efficient. A tense piece of code often got that way because it was highly bummed, but sometimes it was just based on a great idea. A comment in a clever routine by Mike Kazar, once a grad-student hacker at CMU: "This routine is so tense it will bring tears to your eyes." A tense programmer is one who produces tense code.

[Jargon File]

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ten-finger interfacetennis elbowtensetensor producttenured graduate student

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tensor product

<mathematics>

A function of two vector spaces, U and V, which returns the space of linear maps from V's dual to U.

Tensor product has natural symmetry in interchange of U and V and it produces an associative "multiplication" on vector spaces.

Wrinting * for tensor product, we can map UxV to U*V via: (u,v) maps to that linear map which takes any w in V's dual to u times w's action on v. We call this linear map u*v. One can then show that

	u * v + u * x = u * (v+x)
	u * v + t * v = (u+t) * v
and
	hu * v = h(u * v) = u * hv

ie, the mapping respects linearity: whence any bilinear map from UxV (to wherever) may be factorised via this mapping. This gives us the degree of natural symmetry in swapping U and V. By rolling it up to multilinear maps from products of several vector spaces, we can get to the natural associative "multiplication" on vector spaces.

When all the vector spaces are the same, permutation of the factors doesn't change the space and so constitutes an automorphism. These permutation-induced iso-auto-morphisms form a group which is a model of the group of permutations.

Last updated: 1996-09-27

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tennis elbowtensetensor producttenured graduate studenttera-

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tenured graduate student

<job>

One who has been in graduate school for 10 years (the usual maximum is 5 or 6): a "ten-yeared" student (get it?). Actually, this term may be used of any grad student beginning in his seventh year. Students don't really get tenure, of course, the way professors do, but a tenth-year graduate student has probably been around the university longer than any untenured professor.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1996-09-27

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tensetensor producttenured graduate studenttera-terabyte

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tera-

prefix

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tensor producttenured graduate studenttera-terabyteteraflop

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terabyte

<unit, data>

(TB) A unit of data equal to one trillion bytes. A terabyte is 10^12 bytes or 1000^4 bytes or 1000 gigabytes.

A terabyte is roughly the amount of data in 117 DVDs (at 8.5 gigabytes each).

1000 terabytes are one petabyte.

(Note the spelling - one 'r'). See prefix.

Last updated: 2013-11-03

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tenured graduate studenttera-terabyteteraflopteraflop club

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teraflop

<unit>

10^12 flops.

Intel beat Hitachi to the record of 1.06 teraflops, on 04 Dec 1996, unofficially in Beverton, Oregon, using 7264 Pentium Pro chips.

Last updated: 1997-07-21

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tenured graduate studenttera-terabyteteraflopteraflop clubTERMTERMAC

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teraflop club

<body>

/te'r*-flop kluhb/ (From tera- and flops) A mythical association of people who consume outrageous amounts of computer time in order to produce a few simple pictures of glass balls with intricate ray-tracing techniques. Caltech professor James Kajiya is said to have been the founder.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1997-07-21

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tera-terabyteteraflopteraflop clubTERMTERMACtermcapterminak

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TERM

<networking>

1. A program by Michael O'Reilly <michael@iinet.com.au> for people running Unix who have Internet access via a dial-up connection, and who don't have access to SLIP, or PPP, or simply prefer a more lightweight protocol. TERM does end-to-end error-correction, compression and mulplexing across serial links. This means you can upload and download files as the same time you're reading your news, and can run X clients on the other side of your modem link, all without needing SLIP or PPP.

Latest version: 1.15.

ftp://tartarus.uwa.edu.au/pub/oreillym/term/term115.tar.gz.

<business>

2. Technology Enabled Relationship Management.

Last updated: 1999-10-04

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terabyteteraflopteraflop clubTERMTERMACtermcapterminak

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TERMAC

An interactive matrix language.

["Users Guide to TERMAC", J.S. Miller et al, MIT Dec 1968].

Last updated: 1994-11-04

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teraflopteraflop clubTERMTERMACtermcapterminakterminal

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termcap

<operating system>

(terminal capabilities) A Unix database listing different types of terminal (or terminal emulation) and the character strings to send to make the terminal perform certain functions such as move the cursor up one line or clear the screen.

Programs written using termcap can work on any terminal in the database which supports the necessary functions. Typical programs are text editors or file viewers like more. The termcap routines look for an environment variable "TERM" to determine which terminal the user is using.

terminfo is a later version of termcap.

Last updated: 1998-10-30

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TERMTERMACtermcapterminakterminalTerminal Access Controller

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terminak

/ter'mi-nak`/ [Caltech, ca. 1979] Any malfunctioning computer terminal. A common failure mode of Lear-Siegler ADM 3a terminals caused the "L" key to produce the "K" code instead; complaints about this tended to look like "Terminak #3 has a bad keyboard. Pkease fix." See AIDX, Nominal Semidestructor, Open DeathTrap, ScumOS, sun-stools, Telerat, HP-SUX.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-04-14

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TERMACtermcapterminakterminalTerminal Access Controller

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terminal

<hardware>

1. An electronic or electromechanical device for entering data into a computer or a communications system and displaying data received. Early terminals were called teletypes, later ones VDUs. Typically a terminal communicates with the computer via a serial line.

<electronics>

2. The end of a line where signals are either transmitted or received, or a point along the length of a line where the signals are made available to apparatus.

<electronics>

3. Apparatus to send and/or receive signals on a line.

Last updated: 1995-10-02

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terminakterminalTerminal Access Controllerterminal adapter

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Terminal Access Controller

<hardware, networking>

(TAC) A device which connects terminals to the Internet, usually using dial-up modem connections and the TACACS protocol.

Last updated: 1997-11-27

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terminalTerminal Access Controllerterminal adapterTerminal Adaptor

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terminal adapter

Terminal Adaptor

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Terminal Access Controllerterminal adapterTerminal Adaptor

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Terminal Adaptor

<networking, hardware>

(TA) Equipment used to adapt Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) channels to existing terminal equipment standards such as EIA-232 and V.35. A Terminal Adaptor is typically packaged like a modem, either as a stand-alone unit or as an interface card that plugs into a computer or other communications equipment (such as a router or PBX). A Terminal Adaptor does not interoperate with a modem; it replaces it.

[ISDN FAQ].

Last updated: 1994-10-03

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terminal adapterTerminal Adaptorterminal brain deathterminal emulation

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terminal brain death

The extreme form of terminal illness. What someone who has obviously been hacking continuously for far too long is said to be suffering from.

[Jargon File]

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Terminal Adaptorterminal brain deathterminal emulationterminal emulator

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terminal emulation

What a terminal emulator does.

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terminal brain deathterminal emulationterminal emulatorterminal illness

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terminal emulator

<communications>

A program that allows a computer to act like a (particular brand of) terminal, e.g. a vt-100. The computer thus appears as a terminal to the host computer and accepts the same escape sequences for functions such as cursor positioning and clearing the screen.

xterm is a terminal emulator for the X Window System.

Last updated: 1995-02-16

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terminal emulationterminal emulatorterminal illnessterminal junkie

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terminal illness

raster burn

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terminal emulatorterminal illnessterminal junkieterminal node

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terminal junkie

(UK) A wannabee or early larval stage hacker who spends most of his or her time wandering the directory tree and writing noddy programs just to get a fix of computer time. Variants include "terminal jockey", "console junkie", and console jockey. The term "console jockey" seems to imply more expertise than the other three (possibly because of the exalted status of the console relative to an ordinary terminal).

See also twink, read-only user.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-16

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terminal illnessterminal junkieterminal nodeTerminal Oriented Real Time Operating System

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terminal node

leaf

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terminal junkieterminal nodeTerminal Oriented Real Time Operating System

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Terminal Oriented Real Time Operating System

<operating system>

(TORTOS) An operating system developed from MVT at Health Sciences Computing, UCLA by Dr. Patrica Britt from the late 1960s to the mid 1970s.

Dr. Britt was a senior scientist at IBM, who become the Assistant Director of HSCF.

TORTOS pre-dated TSO and provided batch, real-time and time sharing on an IBM 360/91.

Last updated: 2004-07-02

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Terminal Oriented Real Time Operating SystemTerminal Oriented Social Science

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Terminal Oriented Social Science

<project>

(TOSS) The Cambridge Project Project MAC was an ARPA-funded political science computing project. They worked on topics like survey analysis and simulation, led by Ithiel de Sola Pool, J.C.R. Licklider and Douwe B. Yntema. Yntema had done a system on the MIT Lincoln Labs TX-2 called the Lincoln Reckoner, and in the summer of 1969 led a Cambridge Project team in the construction of an experiment called TOSS. TOSS was like Logo, with matrix operators. A major feature was multiple levels of undo, back to the level of the login session. This feature was cheap on the Lincoln Reckoner, but absurdly expensive on Multics.

Last updated: 1997-01-29

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Terminal Oriented Social ScienceTerminal Productivity eXecutive

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Terminal Productivity eXecutive

<operating system>

(TPX) A multiple session manager used to access mainframe applications. It was written by Morgan Stanley, acquired by Duquesne Systems and is now owned by Computer Associates. TPX allows you to work in multiple mainframe applications concurrently; lock and unlock your TPX screen; place your applications on hold; logon to TPX from a different terminal without losing your place; customize your TPX menu and send a screen image to another TPX user.

TPX runs on MVS and VM. On VM, like VTAM, it uses the MVS-like facilities of GCS. It has a complete scripting facility and lets you see other user's sessions. The client-server version allows each managed session to open in its own window. Richard Kuebbing has built a complete e-mail system into it.

Unicenter CA-TPX.

Last updated: 2005-09-29

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Terminal Oriented Social ScienceTerminal Productivity eXecutiveterminal server

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terminal server

A device which connects many terminals (serial lines) to a local area network through one network connection. A terminal server can also connect many network users to its asynchronous ports for dial-out capabilities and printer access.

Last updated: 1995-02-16

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Terminal Productivity eXecutiveterminal serverTerminal User Interface

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Terminal User Interface

Textual User Interface

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terminal serverTerminal User InterfaceTerminate and Stay Resident

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Terminate and Stay Resident

(TSR) A type of DOS utility which, once loaded, stays in memory and can be reactivated by pressing a certain combination of keys.

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Terminal User InterfaceTerminate and Stay Residenttermination analysis

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termination analysis

A program analysis which attempts to determine whether evaluation of a given expression will definitely terminate.

Evaluation of a constant is bound to terminate, as is evaluation of a non-recursive function applied to arguments which are either not evaluated or which can themselves be proved to terminate. A recursive function can be shown to terminate if it can be shown that the arguments of the recursive calls are bound to reach some value at which the recursion will cease.

Termination analysis can never guarantee to give the correct answer because this would be equivalent to solving the halting problem so the answer it gives is either "definitely terminates" or "don't know".

Last updated: 1994-10-20

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Terminate and Stay Residenttermination analysisterminator

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terminator

<electronics>

A resistor connected to a signal wire in a bus or network for the purpose of impedance matching to prevent reflections.

For example, a 50 ohm resistor connected across the end of an Ethernet cable. SCSI chains and some LocalTalk wiring schemes also require terminators.

Last updated: 1995-05-17

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termination analysisterminatorterm rewriting systemTerms Of Service

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term rewriting system

(TRS) A collection of rewrite rules used to transform terms (expressions, strings in some formal language) into equivalent terms. See reduction.

Last updated: 1994-11-04

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termination analysisterminatorterm rewriting systemTerms Of Serviceternary

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Terms Of Service

<networking>

(TOS) The rules laid down by an on-line service provider such as AOL that members must obey or risk being "TOS-sed" (disconnected).

Last updated: 1999-04-02

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terminatorterm rewriting systemTerms Of Serviceternaryterpri

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ternary

<programming>

A description of an operator taking three arguments. The only common example is C's ?: operator which is used in the form "CONDITION ? EXP1 : EXP2" and returns EXP1 if CONDITION is true else EXP2. Haskell has a similar "if CONDITION then EXP1 else EXP2" operator.

See also unary, binary.

Last updated: 1998-07-29

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term rewriting systemTerms Of Serviceternaryterpriterrabyte

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terpri

/ter'pree/ TERminate PRInt line. [LISP 1.5 and later, MacLISP] To output a newline. Still used in Common LISP. On some early operating systems and hardware, no characters would be printed until a complete line was formed, so this operation terminated the line and emitted the output.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1996-06-24

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term rewriting systemTerms Of ServiceternaryterpriterrabyteTersetest

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terrabyte

<spelling>

It's spelled "terabyte".

Last updated: 1997-01-23

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Terms Of ServiceternaryterpriterrabyteTersetesttest coverage

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Terse

Language for decryption of hardware logic.

["Hardware Logic Simulation by Compilation", C. Hansen, 25th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conf, 1988].

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terpriterrabyteTersetesttest coveragetest-driven development

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test

<testing>

The process of exercising a product to identify differences between expected and actual behaviour. Typically testing is bottom-up: unit testing and integration testing by developers, system testing by testers, and user acceptance testing by users.

Test coverage attempts to assess how complete a test has been.

2. The second stage in a generate and test search algorithm.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2003-09-24

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terrabyteTersetesttest coveragetest-driven developmenttesting

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test coverage

<testing>

A measure of the proportion of a program exercised by a test suite, usually expressed as a percentage. This will typically involve collecting information about which parts of a program are actually executed when running the test suite in order to identify which branches of conditional statements which have been taken.

The most basic level of test coverage is code coverage testing and the most methodical is path coverage testing. Some intermediate levels of test coverage exist, but are rarely used.

The standard Unix tool for measuring test coverage is tcov, which annotates C or Fortran source with the results of a test coverage analysis. GCT is a GNU equivalent.

Last updated: 2001-05-20

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Tersetesttest coveragetest-driven developmenttestingTET

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test-driven development

<programming, testing>

(TDD) An iterative software development process where each iteration consists of the developer writing an automated test case for an unimplemented improvement or function, then producing code to pass that test and finally refactoring the code to acceptable standards.

Kent Beck, who is credited with having developed or "rediscovered" the technique, stated in 2003 that TDD encourages simple designs and inspires confidence.

TDD is related to the humourous definition of programming as the process of debugging an empty file.

Last updated: 2012-05-01

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testing

test

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test coveragetest-driven developmenttestingTETTeXTeX-78

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TET

Test Environment Toolkit project coordinated by X/Open.

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test coveragetest-driven developmenttestingTETTeXTeX-78TeX-82

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TeX

<publication>

/tekh/ An extremely powerful macro-based text formatter written by Donald Knuth, very popular in academia, especially in the computer-science community (it is good enough to have displaced Unix troff, the other favoured formatter, even at many Unix installations).

The first version of TeX was written in the programming language SAIL, to run on a PDP-10 under Stanford's WAITS operating system.

Knuth began TeX because he had become annoyed at the declining quality of the typesetting in volumes I-III of his monumental "Art of Computer Programming" (see Knuth, also bible). In a manifestation of the typical hackish urge to solve the problem at hand once and for all, he began to design his own typesetting language. He thought he would finish it on his sabbatical in 1978; he was wrong by only about 8 years. The language was finally frozen around 1985, but volume IV of "The Art of Computer Programming" has yet to appear as of mid-1997. (However, the third edition of volumes I and II have come out). The impact and influence of TeX's design has been such that nobody minds this very much. Many grand hackish projects have started as a bit of toolsmithing on the way to something else; Knuth's diversion was simply on a grander scale than most.

Guy Steele happened to be at Stanford during the summer of 1978, when Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. When he returned to MIT that fall, he rewrote TeX's I/O to run under ITS.

TeX has also been a noteworthy example of free, shared, but high-quality software. Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in it: for each bug the award is doubled. (This has not made Knuth poor, however, as there have been very few bugs and in any case a cheque proving that the owner found a bug in TeX is rarely cashed). Though well-written, TeX is so large (and so full of cutting edge technique) that it is said to have unearthed at least one bug in every Pascal system it has been compiled with.

TeX fans insist on the correct (guttural) pronunciation, and the correct spelling (all caps, squished together, with the E depressed below the baseline; the mixed-case "TeX" is considered an acceptable kluge on ASCII-only devices). Fans like to proliferate names from the word "TeX" - such as TeXnician (TeX user), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique.

Several document processing systems are based on TeX, notably LaTeX Lamport TeX - incorporates document styles for books, letters, slides, etc., jadeTeX uses TeX as a backend for printing from James' DSSSL Engine, and Texinfo, the GNU document processing system. Numerous extensions to TeX exist, among them BibTeX for bibliographies (distributed with LaTeX), PDFTeX modifies TeX to produce PDF and Omega extends TeX to use the Unicode character set.

For some reason, TeX uses its own variant of the point, the TeX point.

See also Comprehensive TeX Archive Network.

ftp://labrea.stanford.edu/tex/.

E-mail: <tug@tug.org> (TeX User's group, Oregon, USA).

Last updated: 2002-03-11

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TeX-78

<language, text>

The original version of TeX.

Last updated: 1997-11-20

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TeX-82

<language, text>

The version of TeX described in The TeXbook, Donald Knuth, A-W 1984.

Last updated: 1997-11-20

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Texas Instruments

<company>

(TI) A US electronics company.

A TI engineer, Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958. Three TI employees left the company in 1982 to start Compaq.

The COOL and OATH C++ class libraries were developed at TI, as were PDL2 and the ASC computer, PC-Scheme and Texas Instruments Pascal.

ftp://ti.com/.

Last updated: 1994-09-26

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Texinfo

A GNU documentation system that uses a single source file to produce both on-line information and printed output. You can read the on-line information, known as an "Info file", with an Info documentation-reading program. By convention, Texinfo source file names end with a ".texi" or ".texinfo" extension.

You can write and format Texinfo files into Info files within GNU Emacs, and read them using the Emacs Info reader. If you do not have Emacs, you can format Texinfo files into Info files using "makeinfo" and read them using "info". TeX is used to typeset Texinfo files for printing.

Texinfo is available from your nearest GNU archive site.

Latest version: 3.1, as of 1993-03-23.

Last updated: 1994-10-05

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TeX point

<unit, text>

The variant of the point used by TeX, equal to 0.3514598035 mm, or 1/72.27 inch.

[Why yet another variant?]

Last updated: 2002-03-11

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text

1. Executable code, especially a "pure code" portion shared between multiple instances of a program running in a multitasking operating system.

Compare English.

2. Textual material in the mainstream sense; data in ordinary ASCII or EBCDIC representation (see flat ASCII). "Those are text files; you can review them using the editor."

These two contradictory senses confuse hackers too.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-03-16

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TexinfoTeX pointtexttext-basedtext editorText Encoding Initiative

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text-based

<jargon>

Working under a non-window-based operating system (e.g. MS-DOS) as opposed to a graphical user interface (e.g. Microsoft Windows).

An MS-DOS text-based program uses a screen with a fixed array of 80x25 or 80x40 characters. Examples are WordPerfect before version 5.1 and Microsoft Word.

Last updated: 1995-03-16

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text editor

<tool, text>

A utility program for creating and modifying text files. This differs from a word processor in that the word processors often embed special control codes or escape sequences in the file to control formatting.

Last updated: 1996-11-15

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Text Encoding Initiative

<text, project, standard>

(TEI) A project working to establish a standard for interchanging electronic text for scholarly research. The TEI has adopted SGML and implemented the TEI standard as an SGML Document Type Definition.

The TEI was incorporated as a not-for-profit consortium in December 2000, with host sites in Bergen, Oxford, Virginia, and Providence RI, USA.

http://tei-c.org/.

See also Corpus Processing.

[Any connection with Computational Linguistics or Natural Language Processing?]

Last updated: 2001-03-23

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text editorText Encoding Initiativetext fileText Processing Utility

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text file

<file format>

A file containing no "invisible" control characters, only printable letters, numbers and symbols, usually from the ASCII character set.

A text file can be produced with a text editor and can usually be imported into any word processor though it will probably appear unformatted.

Compare binary file, flat file, rich text file.

Last updated: 1996-11-15

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Text Processing Utility

<language>

(TPU) A DEC language for creation of text-processing interfaces, used to implement DEC's Extensible VAX Editor (EVE).

Last updated: 2000-05-08

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text fileText Processing UtilityText Reckoning And Compiling

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Text Reckoning And Compiling

<language>

(TRAC) An interactive macro generator language for string manipulation by Calvin N. Mooers and Peter Deutsch of Sun Microsystems. TAC derived ideas from Macro SAP. There are versions for PDP-1, PDP-8, PDP-10 and PDP-11.

See also MINT, SAM76.

E-mail: Preston Briggs <preston@rice.edu>.

["TRAC: A Procedure- Describing Language for the Reactive Typewriter", Calvin N. Mooers, CACM 9(3):215-219 (Mar 1966). Rockford Research Inst, 1972].

[Sammet 1969, pp.448-454].

["Macro Processors", A.J. Cole, Cambridge U Press].

Last updated: 1994-12-21

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text segment

code segment

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Text To Speech

<application>

(TTS) Automatic conversion of text streams to voice.

[Details?]

Last updated: 1997-05-11

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Text Reckoning And Compilingtext segmentText To SpeechTextual User Interfacetexture

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Textual User Interface

<interface>

(TUI) Either a text-based version of a GUI, or a full-screen version of a CLI.

Last updated: 2003-10-21

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text segmentText To SpeechTextual User Interfacetexturetf

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texture

<graphics>

A measure of the variation of the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity. It's often used as a region descriptor in image analysis and computer vision.

The three principal approaches used to describe texture are statistical, structural and spectral. Statistical techniques characterise texture by the statistical properties of the grey levels of the points comprising a surface. Typically, these properties are computed from the grey level histogram or grey level cooccurrence matrix of the surface.

Structural techniques characterise texture as being composed of simple primitives called "texels" (texture elements), that are regularly arranged on a surface according to some rules. These rules are formally defined by grammars of various types.

Spectral techiques are based on properties of the Fourier spectrum and describe global periodicity of the grey levels of a surface by identifying high energy peaks in the spectrum.

Last updated: 1995-05-11

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text segmentText To SpeechTextual User InterfacetexturetfTFDLTFT

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tf

<networking>

The country code for French southern territories.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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TFDL

<language>

["TFDL : A Task-level Dataflow Language", P.A. Suhler et al, J Parallel and Distrib Comput 9:103-115 (1990)].

Last updated: 1995-05-11

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TFT

Thin Film transistor

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TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

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tg

<networking>

The country code for Togo.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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TGA

Targa Graphics Adaptor

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T-gen

A general-purpose object-oriented tool for the automatic generation of string-to-object translators. It was written in Smalltalk by Justin Graver <graver@comm.mot.com> and runs in the Smalltalk programming environment. T-gen supports the generation of both top-down parsers (LL parsers) and bottom-up parsers (LR parsers), which will automatically generate derivation trees, abstract syntax trees or arbitrary Smalltalk objects. The simple specification syntax and graphical user interface are intended to enhance the learning, comprehension and usefulness of T-gen.

Latest version: 2.1.

Runs on Smalltalk-80, ParcPlace Objectworks/Smalltalk 4.0 or 4.1.

ftp://st.cs.uiuc.edu/pub/st80_r41/T-gen2.1/.

Last updated: 1992-10-18

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TGS-II

Translator Generator System. Contained TRANDIR.

[Sammet 1969, p. 640].

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TGS Systems

<company>

Suppliers of Prograph.

Telephone: +1 (902) 429 5642.

Last updated: 1995-03-31

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TGAT-genTGS-IITGS Systemstgzththanks in advanceThat's not a bug, that's a feature!

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tgz

<filename extension, compression>

(Or less often "taz", Tar GNU zip) A filename extension for a file or directory which has been archived with tar and then compressed with gzip. The full form ".tar.gz" is also common on proper file systems not limited to 8.3 file names.

Last updated: 1996-11-03

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th

<networking>

The country code for Thailand.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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thanks in advance

<jargon>

(Usually "TIA") A conventional Usenet net.politeness ending a posted request for information or assistance. Sometimes written "advTHANKSance" or "aTdHvAaNnKcSe".

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1999-02-09

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ththanks in advanceThat's not a bug, that's a feature!T.H.E

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That's not a bug, that's a feature!

The canonical first parry in a debate about a purported bug. The complainant, if unconvinced, is likely to retort that the bug is then at best a misfeature.

See also feature.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-02

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T.H.E

<operating system>

The operating system in which semaphores were first used.

[Details?]

Last updated: 1999-10-12

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The Cuckoo's Egg

A great book (and subsequent BBC TV series) telling the true story of Clifford Stoll, an astronomy professor at UCB's Lawrence Berkeley Lab. A 75-cent accounting error alerted him to the presence of an unauthorised user (a cracker) on his system. The cracker, code named "Hunter", was breaking into US computer systems and stealing sensitive military and security information. Hunter was part of a spy ring paid in cash and cocaine, and reporting to the KGB.

["The Cuckoo's Egg", Clifford Stoll, London: Bodley Head, 1990, ISBN 0-370-31433-6, ISBN 0-671-72688-9].

[FTP?]

Last updated: 1994-11-15

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The Dojo Toolkit

<library, programming>

A modular, open source JavaScript library. Dojo is designed for easy development of JavaScript- or AJAX based applications and websites. It is supported by the Dojo Foundation, which is sponsored by IBM, AOL, Sun and others.

The name is from the Japanese term meaning "place of the way", used for a formal place of training.

Last updated: 2008-07-23

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The Force

A data parallel language by Harry Jordan <harry@boulder.colorado.edu> which extends Fortran for shared memory multiprocessors. It features parallel "case" statements and critical sections.

["The Force", H. Jordan, in "The Characteristics of Parallel Algorithms", L. Jamieson et al eds, MIT Press 1987, pp. 395-436].

Last updated: 1994-12-14

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The Internet Account

An Internet provider in Sydney, Australia who provides SLIP, PPP and CLI accounts for the same rates. <riscman@geko.com.au> handles Acorn software.

http://geko.com.au/.

ftp://ftp.geko.com.au/pub/.

E-mail: <accounts@geko.com.au>.

Telephone: +61 (2) 968 4333. Fax: +61 (2) 968 4334.

Address: PO BOX 473, Crows Nest, NSE 2065, Australia.

Last updated: 1995-02-02

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The MathWorks, Inc.

<company>

The company marketing MATLAB.

http://mathworks.com/.

E-mail: <info@mathworks.com>.

Address: 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, Massachusetts 01760-2098 USA.

Telephone: +1 (508) 647-7000. Fax: +1 (508) 647-7101.

Last updated: 2005-08-13

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The Metadata Company

<company>

A company founded by Jack E. Myers, originally known as Metadata Information Partners. Myers trademarked the word "Metadata" (unhyphenated with initial capital, as opposed to the general term metadata) to represent implementations of his MetaModel and to designate his company.

Myers claims that a data and publication search in the summer of 1969 failed to discover any use either of the word "metadata" or "meta data".

http://metadata.com/.

E-mail: <metadata@metadata.com>.

Address: 444 West Ocean Blvd, Suite 1600, Long Beach CA 90802, USA.

Last updated: 2010-05-15

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The Microsoft Network

<networking>

(MSN) Microsoft's ISP and online content service, launched in October 1996. Not to be confused with Microsoft Networking.

MSN was originally based on custom software and protocols, however Microsoft saw the error of their ways and adopted Internet standards. MSN now provides standard WWW and email facilities, albeit with Microsoft's Internet Explorer web-browser and the Outlook Express email software.

The service also provides "Community Services" including newsgroups, forums, and chat.

http://msn.com/.

Last updated: 1998-08-11

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The Mythical Man-Month

<publication>

Fred Brooks's excellent 1975 book on software engineering.

See also Brooks's Law.

["The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering", Fred Brooks, Addison-Wesley, 1975, ISBN 0-201-00650-2].

Last updated: 1996-06-20

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The Network

network, the

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THEO

A frame language.

["Theo: A Framework for Self-Improving Systems", Mitchell et al, in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn ed, Erlbaum, 1989].

Last updated: 1994-12-14

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theology

1. Ironically or humorously used to refer to religious issues.

2. Technical fine points of an abstruse nature, especially those where the resolution is of theoretical interest but is relatively marginal with respect to actual use of a design or system. Used especially around software issues with a heavy AI or language-design component, such as the smart-data vs. smart-programs dispute in AI.

[Jargon File]

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The Open Group

<body>

(Formerly "X/Open") A vendor- and technology-neutral consortium of buyers and suppliers of information systems that aims to ease integration by testing and certifying products against open standards.

The Open Group Home.

Last updated: 2006-07-13

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theory

The consensus, idea, plan, story, or set of rules that is currently being used to inform a behaviour. This usage is a generalisation and (deliberate) abuse of the technical meaning. "What's the theory on fixing this TECO loss?" "What's the theory on dinner tonight?" ("Chinatown, I guess.") "What's the current theory on letting lusers on during the day?" "The theory behind this change is to fix the following well-known screw...."

Last updated: 1994-12-14

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theory change

<artificial intelligence>

The study of methods used to incorporate new information into a knowledge base when the new information may conflict with existing information.

Belief revision is one area of theory change.

[Others?]

Last updated: 1995-03-20

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The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus

<project>

(TRON) A project to develop an operating system and man-machine interface that can work with other operating systems to provide an environment for many small distributed computers to cooperate in real time. TRON is headed by Dr. Ken Sakamura of the University of Tokyo and supported by most of the major Japanese computer makers and NTT.

http://atip.org/public/atip.reports.91/tron.html.

Last updated: 2003-05-23

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There's More Than One Way To Do It

<programming, philosophy>

(TMTOWTDI) One of the design principles of Perl. The Perl man page ends with a note:

The Perl motto is "There's more than one way to do it." Divining how many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

Last updated: 2001-03-15

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Theseus

<language>

A language based on Euclid, never implemented.

["Theseus - A Programming Language for Relational Databases", J.E. Shopiro, ACM Trans Database Sys 4(4):493-517, Mar 1979].

Last updated: 1994-12-14

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The story of Mel

The story of Mel, a Real Programmer

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The story of Mel, a Real Programmer

<programming, person>

A 1983 article by Ed Nather about hacker Mel Kaye. The full text follows.

A recent article devoted to the macho side of programming made the bald and unvarnished statement, "Real Programmers write in FORTRAN".

Maybe they do now, in this decadent era of Lite beer, hand calculators and "user-friendly" software but back in the Good Old Days, when the term "software" sounded funny and Real Computers were made out of drums and vacuum tubes, Real Programmers wrote in machine code - not Fortran, not RATFOR, not even assembly language - Machine Code, raw, unadorned, inscrutable hexadecimal numbers, directly.

Lest a whole new generation of programmers grow up in ignorance of this glorious past, I feel duty-bound to describe, as best I can through the generation gap, how a Real Programmer wrote code. I'll call him Mel, because that was his name.

I first met Mel when I went to work for Royal McBee Computer Corporation, a now-defunct subsidiary of the typewriter company. The firm manufactured the LGP-30, a small, cheap (by the standards of the day) drum-memory computer, and had just started to manufacture the RPC-4000, a much-improved, bigger, better, faster -- drum-memory computer. Cores cost too much, and weren't here to stay, anyway. (That's why you haven't heard of the company, or the computer.)

I had been hired to write a Fortran compiler for this new marvel and Mel was my guide to its wonders. Mel didn't approve of compilers.

"If a program can't rewrite its own code," he asked, "what good is it?"

Mel had written, in hexadecimal, the most popular computer program the company owned. It ran on the LGP-30 and played blackjack with potential customers at computer shows. Its effect was always dramatic. The LGP-30 booth was packed at every show, and the IBM salesmen stood around talking to each other. Whether or not this actually sold computers was a question we never discussed.

Mel's job was to re-write the blackjack program for the RPC-4000. (Port? What does that mean?) The new computer had a one-plus-one addressing scheme, in which each machine instruction, in addition to the operation code and the address of the needed operand, had a second address that indicated where, on the revolving drum, the next instruction was located. In modern parlance, every single instruction was followed by a GO TO! Put *that* in Pascal's pipe and smoke it.

Mel loved the RPC-4000 because he could optimize his code: that is, locate instructions on the drum so that just as one finished its job, the next would be just arriving at the "read head" and available for immediate execution. There was a program to do that job, an "optimizing assembler", but Mel refused to use it.

"You never know where its going to put things", he explained, "so you'd have to use separate constants".

It was a long time before I understood that remark. Since Mel knew the numerical value of every operation code, and assigned his own drum addresses, every instruction he wrote could also be considered a numerical constant. He could pick up an earlier "add" instruction, say, and multiply by it, if it had the right numeric value. His code was not easy for someone else to modify.

I compared Mel's hand-optimised programs with the same code massaged by the optimizing assembler program, and Mel's always ran faster. That was because the "top-down" method of program design hadn't been invented yet, and Mel wouldn't have used it anyway. He wrote the innermost parts of his program loops first, so they would get first choice of the optimum address locations on the drum. The optimizing assembler wasn't smart enough to do it that way.

Mel never wrote time-delay loops, either, even when the balky Flexowriter required a delay between output characters to work right. He just located instructions on the drum so each successive one was just *past* the read head when it was needed; the drum had to execute another complete revolution to find the next instruction. He coined an unforgettable term for this procedure. Although "optimum" is an absolute term, like "unique", it became common verbal practice to make it relative: "not quite optimum" or "less optimum" or "not very optimum". Mel called the maximum time-delay locations the "most pessimum".

After he finished the blackjack program and got it to run, ("Even the initialiser is optimised", he said proudly) he got a Change Request from the sales department. The program used an elegant (optimised) random number generator to shuffle the "cards" and deal from the "deck", and some of the salesmen felt it was too fair, since sometimes the customers lost. They wanted Mel to modify the program so, at the setting of a sense switch on the console, they could change the odds and let the customer win.

Mel balked. He felt this was patently dishonest, which it was, and that it impinged on his personal integrity as a programmer, which it did, so he refused to do it. The Head Salesman talked to Mel, as did the Big Boss and, at the boss's urging, a few Fellow Programmers. Mel finally gave in and wrote the code, but he got the test backward, and, when the sense switch was turned on, the program would cheat, winning every time. Mel was delighted with this, claiming his subconscious was uncontrollably ethical, and adamantly refused to fix it.

After Mel had left the company for greener pa$ture$, the Big Boss asked me to look at the code and see if I could find the test and reverse it. Somewhat reluctantly, I agreed to look. Tracking Mel's code was a real adventure.

I have often felt that programming is an art form, whose real value can only be appreciated by another versed in the same arcane art; there are lovely gems and brilliant coups hidden from human view and admiration, sometimes forever, by the very nature of the process. You can learn a lot about an individual just by reading through his code, even in hexadecimal. Mel was, I think, an unsung genius.

Perhaps my greatest shock came when I found an innocent loop that had no test in it. No test. *None*. Common sense said it had to be a closed loop, where the program would circle, forever, endlessly. Program control passed right through it, however, and safely out the other side. It took me two weeks to figure it out.

The RPC-4000 computer had a really modern facility called an index register. It allowed the programmer to write a program loop that used an indexed instruction inside; each time through, the number in the index register was added to the address of that instruction, so it would refer to the next datum in a series. He had only to increment the index register each time through. Mel never used it.

Instead, he would pull the instruction into a machine register, add one to its address, and store it back. He would then execute the modified instruction right from the register. The loop was written so this additional execution time was taken into account -- just as this instruction finished, the next one was right under the drum's read head, ready to go. But the loop had no test in it.

The vital clue came when I noticed the index register bit, the bit that lay between the address and the operation code in the instruction word, was turned on-- yet Mel never used the index register, leaving it zero all the time. When the light went on it nearly blinded me.

He had located the data he was working on near the top of memory -- the largest locations the instructions could address -- so, after the last datum was handled, incrementing the instruction address would make it overflow. The carry would add one to the operation code, changing it to the next one in the instruction set: a jump instruction. Sure enough, the next program instruction was in address location zero, and the program went happily on its way.

I haven't kept in touch with Mel, so I don't know if he ever gave in to the flood of change that has washed over programming techniques since those long-gone days. I like to think he didn't. In any event, I was impressed enough that I quit looking for the offending test, telling the Big Boss I couldn't find it. He didn't seem surprised.

When I left the company, the blackjack program would still cheat if you turned on the right sense switch, and I think that's how it should be. I didn't feel comfortable hacking up the code of a Real Programmer."

[Posted to Usenet by its author, Ed Nather <utastro!nather>, on 1983-05-21].

Jargon File.

[On the trail of a Real Programmer, 2011-03-25 blog post by "jonno" at Jamtronix]

[When did it happen? Did Mel use hexadecimal or octal?]

Last updated: 2003-09-12

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The story of MelThe story of Mel, a Real ProgrammerThe World Of Cryton

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The World Of Cryton

(TWOC) A BBS for the Acorn Archimedes.

Telephone: +44 (1749) 670 030 (24hrs, most speeds).

Last updated: 1994-11-08

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The story of Mel, a Real ProgrammerThe World Of Crytonthe X that can be Y is not the true X

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the X that can be Y is not the true X

Yet another instance of hackerdom's peculiar attraction to mystical references - a common humorous way of making exclusive statements about a class of things. The template is from the "Tao te Ching": "The Tao which can be spoken of is not the true Tao." The implication is often that the X is a mystery accessible only to the enlightened. See the trampoline entry for an example, and compare has the X nature.

[Jargon File]

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The World Of Crytonthe X that can be Y is not the true Xthicket

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thicket

<jargon>

Multiple files output from some operation.

The term has been heard in use at Microsoft to describe the set of files output when Microsoft Word does "Save As a Web Page" or "Save as HTML". The process can result in a main XML or HTML file, a graphic file for each image in the original, a CSS file, etc.

This can be an issue as XML can be used as the default format in Office 2000, and document management systems can't yet cope with the relationship between the files in a thicket when checking in and out.

Last updated: 2001-09-01

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the X that can be Y is not the true Xthicketthick Ethernet cable

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thick Ethernet cable

RG8

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thick Ethernet cablethick film dielectric electroluminescence

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thick film dielectric electroluminescence

<hardware>

(TDEL) A phenomenon used in some flat panel displays.

Last updated: 2007-06-04

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thick Ethernet cablethick film dielectric electroluminescencethicknet

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thicknet

10base5

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thick film dielectric electroluminescencethicknetthin client

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thin client

<networking>

A simple client program or hardware device which relies on most of the function of the system being in the server.

Gopher clients, for example, are very thin; they are stateless and are not required to know how to interpret and display objects much more complex than menus and plain text. Gopher servers, on the other hand, can search databases and provide gateways to other services.

By the mid-1990s, the model of decentralised computing where each user has his own full-featured and independent microcomputer, seemed to have displaced a centralised model in which multiple users use thin clients (e.g. dumb terminals) to work on a shared minicomputer or mainframe server. Networked personal computers typically operate as "fat clients", often providing everything except some file storage and printing locally.

By 1996, reintroduction of thin clients is being proposed, especially for LAN-type environments (see the cycle of reincarnation). The main expected benefit of this is ease of maintenance: with fat clients, especially those suffering from the poor networking support of Microsoft operating systems, installing a new application for everyone is likely to mean having to physically go to every user's workstation to install the application, or having to modify client-side configuration options; whereas with thin clients the maintenance tasks are centralised on the server and so need only be done once.

Also, by virtue of their simplicity, thin clients generally have fewer hardware demands, and are less open to being screwed up by ambitious lusers.

Never one to miss a bandwagon, Microsoft bought up Insignia Solutions, Inc.'s "NTRIGUE" Windows remote-access product and combined it with Windows NT version 4 to allow thin clients (either hardware or software) to communicate with applications running under on a server machine under Windows Terminal Server in the same way as X had done for Unix decades before.

Last updated: 1999-02-01

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thick film dielectric electroluminescencethicknetthin clientthin Ethernet cableThingLab

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thin Ethernet cable

RG58

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thicknetthin clientthin Ethernet cableThingLabThink CThinking Machines Corporation

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ThingLab

A simulation system written in Smalltalk-80. It solves constraints using value inference.

Version: ThingLab II.

["The Programming Language Aspects of ThingLab, A Constraint-Oriented Simulation Laboratory", A. Borning, ACM TOPLAS 3(4):353-387 (Oct 1981)].

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thin Ethernet cableThingLabThink CThinking Machines Corporation

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Think C

An extension of ANSI C for the Macintosh by Symantec Corporation. It supports object-oriented programming techniques similar to C++.

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thin Ethernet cableThingLabThink CThinking Machines Corporationthinko

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Thinking Machines Corporation

<company>

The company that introduced the Connection Machine parallel computer ca 1984. Four of the world's ten most powerful supercomputers are Connection Machines. Thinking Machines is the leader in scalable computing, with software and applications running on parallel systems ranging from 16 to 1024 processors. In developing the Connection Machine system, Thinking Machines also did pioneering work in parallel software.

The 1993 technical applications market for massively parallel systems was approximately $310 million, of which Thinking Machines Corporation held a 29 percent share. Thinking Machines planned to become a software provider by 1996, by which time the parallel computing market was expected to have grown to $2 billion.

Thinking Machines Corporation has 200 employees and offices worldwide.

Address: 245 First Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1264, USA. Telephone: +1 (617) 234 1000. Fax: +1 (617) 234 4444.

Last updated: 1994-12-01

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ThingLabThink CThinking Machines Corporationthinkothinnet

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thinko

<jargon>

/thing'koh/ (Or "braino", by analogy with "typo") A momentary, correctable glitch in mental processing, especially one involving recall of information learned by rote; a bubble in the stream of consciousness.

See also brain fart. Compare mouso.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1996-04-20

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Thinking Machines Corporationthinkothinnetthird generation computer

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thinnet

cheapernet

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thinkothinnetthird generation computerthird generation language

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third generation computer

<architecture>

A computer built with small-scale integration integrated circuits, designed after the mid-1960s.

Third generation computers use semiconductor memories in addition to, and later instead of, ferrite core memory. The two main types of semiconductor memory are Read-Only Memory (ROM) and read-and-write memories called random-access memory (RAM).

A technique called microprogramming became widespread and simplified the design of the CPUs and increased their flexibility. This also made possible the development of operating systems as software rather than as hard-wiring.

A variety of techniques for improving processing efficiency were invented, such as pipelining, (parallel operation of functional units processing a single instruction), and multiprocessing (concurrent execution of multiple programs).

As the execution of a program requires that program to be in memory, the concurrent running of several programs requires that all programs be in memory simultaneously. Thus the development of techniques for concurrent processing was matched by the development of memory management techniques such as dynamic memory allocation, virtual memory, and paging, as well as compilers producing relocatable code.

The LILLIAC IV is an example of a third generation computer.

The CTSS (Compatible Time-Sharing System) was developed at MIT in the early 1960s and had a considerable influence on the design of subsequent timesharing operating systems.

An interesting contrasting development in this generation was the start of mass production of small low-cost "minicomputers".

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thinnetthird generation computerthird generation language

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third generation language

<language>

(3GL, "high level language") A language designed to be easier for a human to understand, including things like named variables. A fragment might be

	let c = c + 2 * d

Fortran, ALGOL and COBOL are early examples of this sort of language. Most "modern" languages (BASIC, C, C++) are third generation. Most 3GLs support structured programming.

See also second generation language, fourth generation language.

Last updated: 1996-05-30

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third generation computerthird generation languagethird normal form

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third normal form

database normalisation

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third generation languagethird normal formThis can't happen

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This can't happen

can't happen

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third normal formThis can't happenthis dictionaryThis time, for sure!

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this dictionary

Free On-line Dictionary of Computing

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third normal formThis can't happenthis dictionaryThis time, for sure!thn

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This time, for sure!

<exclamation>

Ritual affirmation frequently uttered during protracted debugging sessions involving numerous small obstacles (e.g. attempts to bring up a UUCP connection). For the proper effect, this must be uttered in a fruity imitation of Bullwinkle J. Moose.

Also heard: "Hey, Rocky! Watch me pull a rabbit out of my hat!" The canonical response is, of course, "But that trick *never* works!"

See hacker humour.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-09-27

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This can't happenthis dictionaryThis time, for sure!thnThomas

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thn

thumbnail

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this dictionaryThis time, for sure!thnThomasthrashthrashing

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Thomas

<language>

A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).

The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs (slowly) on MIT's CScheme, DEC's Scheme->C, Marc Feeley's Gambi, Macintosh, PC, Vax, MIPS, Alpha, 680x0.

ftp://gatekeeper.pa.dec.com/pub/DEC/Thomas.

Mailing list: <info-thomas@crl.dec.com>.

["Dylan(TM) an object-oriented dynamic language", Apple Computer, Eastern Research and Technology, April 1992].

Last updated: 1992-09-11

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this dictionaryThis time, for sure!thnThomasthrashthrashingthread

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thrash

To move wildly or violently, without accomplishing anything useful. Paging or swapping systems that are overloaded waste most of their time moving data into and out of core (rather than performing useful computation) and are therefore said to thrash. Thrashing can also occur in a cache due to cache conflict or in a multiprocessor (see ping-pong).

Someone who keeps changing his mind (especially about what to work on next) is said to be thrashing. A person frantically trying to execute too many tasks at once (and not spending enough time on any single task) may also be described as thrashing.

Compare multitask.

[Jargon File]

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This time, for sure!thnThomasthrashthrashingthreadthreaded

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thrashing

thrash

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thnThomasthrashthrashingthreadthreadedthreaded codethreading

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thread

1. See multithreading.

2. See threaded code.

3. topic thread.

[Jargon File]

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Thomasthrashthrashingthreadthreadedthreaded codethreading

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threaded

thread

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thrashingthreadthreadedthreaded codethreadingThread Language Zero

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threaded code

<programming>

A technique for implementing virtual machine interpreters, introduced by J.R. Bell in 1973, where each op-code in the virtual machine instruction set is the address of some (lower level) code to perform the required operation. This kind of virtual machine can be implemented efficiently in machine code on most processors by simply performing an indirect jump to the address which is the next instruction.

Many Forth implementations use threaded code and nowadays some use the term "threading" for almost any technique used to implement Forth's virtual machine.

http://complang.tuwien.ac.at/forth/threaded-code.html.

["James R. Bell", "Threaded Code", CACM, 1973, 16, 6, pp 370-372].

["An Architectural Trail to Threaded Code Systems", Kogge, P. M., IEEE Computer, March 1982].

Last updated: 1998-09-02

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threadthreadedthreaded codethreadingThread Language Zero

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threading

thread

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threadedthreaded codethreadingThread Language Zerothread-safe

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Thread Language Zero

<language>

(TL0) The instruction set of the TAM (Threaded Abstract Machine), used to implement Id.

["Fine-grain Parallelism with Minimal Hardware Support", David Culler et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(4):164-175, ASPLOS-IV Proc, Apr 1991].

Last updated: 1995-03-13

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threadingThread Language Zerothread-safethree-finger salute

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thread-safe

<programming>

A description of code which is either re-entrant or protected from multiple simultaneous execution by some form of mutual exclusion.

Last updated: 1997-01-30

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Thread Language Zerothread-safethree-finger salutethree-letter acronym

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three-finger salute

Vulcan nerve pinch

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thread-safethree-finger salutethree-letter acronymthree-tier

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three-letter acronym

<jargon>

(TLA) The canonical, self-describing acronym for the name of a species with which computing terminology is infested. Examples include MCA, FTP, SNA, CPU, MMU, DMU, FPU, TLA.

This dictionary contains many TLAs.

Sometimes used by extension for any confusing acronym. People who like this looser usage argue that not all TLAs have three letters, just as not all four-letter words have four letters. One also hears of "ETLA" (Extended Three-Letter Acronym) being used to describe four-letter acronyms. The term "SFLA" (Stupid Four-Letter Acronym) has also been reported.

See also YABA.

The self-effacing phrase "TDM TLA" (Too Damn Many...) is used to bemoan the plethora of TLAs in use. In 1989, a random of the journalistic persuasion asked hacker Paul Boutin "What do you think will be the biggest problem in computing in the 90s?" Paul's straight-faced response: "There are only 17,000 three-letter acronyms." (To be exact, there are 26^3 = 17,576.)

Last updated: 2014-08-14

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three-finger salutethree-letter acronymthree-tierthroughput

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three-tier

<architecture>

A client-server architecture in which the user interface, functional process logic ("business rules") and data storage and access are developed and maintained as independent modules, most often on separate platforms.

Apart from the usual advantages of modular software with well defined interfaces, the three-tier architecture is intended to allow any of the three tiers to be upgraded or replaced independently as requirements or technology change. For example, an upgrade of desktop operating system from Microsoft Windows to Unix would only affect the user interface code.

Typically, the user interface runs on a desktop PC or workstation and uses a standard graphical user interface, functional process logic may consist of one or more separate modules running on a workstation or application server, and an RDBMS on a database server or mainframe contains the data storage logic. The middle tier may be multi-tiered itself (in which case the overall architecture is called an "n-tier architecture").

Last updated: 1998-05-13

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three-finger salutethree-letter acronymthree-tierthroughputthud

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throughput

1. The rate at which a processor can work expressed in instructions per second or jobs per hour or some other unit of performance.

<communications>

2. data transfer rate.

Last updated: 2001-05-22

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three-letter acronymthree-tierthroughputthudThumbthumb

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thud

1. Yet another metasyntactic variable (see foo). It is reported that at CMU from the mid-1970s the canonical series of these was "foo", "bar", "thud", "blat".

2. Rare term for the hash character, "#" (ASCII 35). See ASCII for other synonyms.

[Jargon File]

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three-letter acronymthree-tierthroughputthudThumbthumbthumbnail

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Thumb

<processor>

An extension to the Advanced RISC Machine architecture, announced on 06 March 1995 by Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. By identifying the critical subset of the ARM instruction set and encoding it into 16 bits, ARM has succeeded in reducing typical program size by 30-40% from ARM's already excellent code density. Since this Thumb instruction set uses less memory for program storage, cost is further reduced.

All Thumb-aware processor cores combine the capability to execute both the 32-bit ARM and the 16-bit Thumb instruction sets. Careful design of the Thumb instructions allow them to be decompressed into full ARM instructions transparently during normal instruction decoding without any performance penalty. This differs from other 32-bit processors, like the Intel 486SX, with a 16-bit data bus, which require two 16-bit memory accesses to execute every 32-bit instruction and so halve performance.

The patented Thumb decompressor has been carefully designed with only a small amount of circuitry additional to the existing instruction decoder, so chip size and thus cost do not significantly increase. Designers can easily interleave fast ARM instructions (for performance critical parts of a program) with compact Thumb code to save memory.

Last updated: 1995-03-14

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three-tierthroughputthudThumbthumbthumbnailThunderbird

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thumb

<jargon>

The slider or "bubble" on a window system scrollbar. So called because moving it allows you to browse through the contents of a text window in a way analogous to thumbing through a book.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-03-14

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throughputthudThumbthumbthumbnailThunderbirdthunkTIA

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thumbnail

<file format, graphics>

(From "thumbnail sketch") A file format used by Graphics Workshop for Microsoft Windows. Filename extension: ".thn".

[What's in the files?]

Last updated: 1996-05-28

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throughputthudThumbthumbthumbnailThunderbirdthunkTIAtick

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Thunderbird

<messaging, open source>

A complete free, open-source e-mail client from the Mozilla Foundation and therefore a true code descendent of the e-mail code in Netscape Navigator. The first non-beta release was in late 2004. The Firefox web browser is from the same source.

Thunderbird Home.

Last updated: 2005-01-26

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thudThumbthumbthumbnailThunderbirdthunkTIAtickTickIT

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thunk

<programming>

/thuhnk/ 1. "A piece of coding which provides an address", according to P. Z. Ingerman, who invented thunks in 1961 as a way of binding actual parameters to their formal definitions in ALGOL 60 procedure calls. If a procedure is called with an expression in the place of a formal parameter, the compiler generates a thunk which computes the expression and leaves the address of the result in some standard location.

2. The term was later generalised to mean an expression, frozen together with its environment (variable values), for later evaluation if and when needed (similar to a "closure"). The process of unfreezing these thunks is called "forcing".

3. A stubroutine, in an overlay programming environment, that loads and jumps to the correct overlay.

Compare trampoline.

There are a couple of onomatopoeic myths circulating about the origin of this term. The most common is that it is the sound made by data hitting the stack; another holds that the sound is that of the data hitting an accumulator. Yet another suggests that it is the sound of the expression being unfrozen at argument-evaluation time. In fact, according to the inventors, it was coined after they realised (in the wee hours after hours of discussion) that the type of an argument in ALGOL 60 could be figured out in advance with a little compile-time thought, simplifying the evaluation machinery. In other words, it had "already been thought of"; thus it was christened a "thunk", which is "the past tense of "think" at two in the morning".

4. (Microsoft Windows programming) universal thunk, generic thunk, flat thunk.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1997-10-11

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ThumbthumbthumbnailThunderbirdthunkTIAtickTickITTickle

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TIA

<chat>

1. Thanks in advance.

<body>

2. Telecommunications Industry Association.

<software>

3. The Internet Adapter.

<graphics, hardware>

4. Television Interface Adaptor.

Last updated: 1999-12-06

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thumbnailThunderbirdthunkTIAtickTickITTickletickle a bug

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tick

1. A jiffy (sense 1). 2. In simulations, the discrete unit of time that passes between iterations of the simulation mechanism. In AI applications, this amount of time is often left unspecified, since the only constraint of interest is the ordering of events. This sort of AI simulation is often pejoratively referred to as "tick-tick-tick" simulation, especially when the issue of simultaneity of events with long, independent chains of causes is handwaved. 3. In the FORTH language, a single quote character.

[Jargon File]

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ThunderbirdthunkTIAtickTickITTickletickle a bugtick-list features

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TickIT

A software industry quality assessment scheme.

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thunkTIAtickTickITTickletickle a bugtick-list features

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Tickle

<text, tool>

A text editor, file translator and TCL interpreter for the Macintosh.

Version 5.0v1. The text editor breaks the 32K limit (like MPW).

The file translation utilities support drag and drop handling via tcl scripts of BinHex, MacBinary, Apple Computer Single/Double, StuffIt (with engine), Unix compress, Unix tar and UUencode files as well as text translation.

Tickle implements tcl 7.0 with tclX extensions and Macintosh equivalents of Unix's ls, pwd, cd commands. It provides Macintosh access to Resource Manager, Communications Toolbox, OSA Components (and AppleScript), Editions (publish and subscribe) and Apple Events (including AEBuild and AEPrint). OSA Script support allows programming of any OSA scripting component within Tickle interpreter windows. It provides the OSAtcl and OSAJ J/APL extensions and creates "Ticklets" which are small application programs that carry only the tcl script and use code in the OSAtcl component to drive an application that allows drag and drop with tcl scripts. Tickle is scriptable and recordable.

ftp://ftp.msen.com/pub/vendor/ice/tickle/Tickle5.0v1.hqx.

E-mail: <time@ice.com>.

Last updated: 1994-10-12

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TIAtickTickITTickletickle a bugtick-list featuresTIFF

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tickle a bug

To cause a normally hidden bug to manifest itself through some known series of inputs or operations. "You can tickle the bug in the Paradise VGA card's highlight handling by trying to set bright yellow reverse video."

[Jargon File]

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TickITTickletickle a bugtick-list featuresTIFFtiger team

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tick-list features

(Acorn Computers) Features in software or hardware that customers insist on but never use (calculators in desktop TSRs and that sort of thing). The American equivalent would be "checklist features", but this jargon sense of the phrase has not been reported.

Last updated: 1995-01-06

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Tickletickle a bugtick-list featuresTIFFtiger teamtight loop

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TIFF

Tagged Image File Format

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tickle a bugtick-list featuresTIFFtiger teamtight looptilde

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tiger team

(US military jargon) 1. Originally, a team whose purpose is to penetrate security, and thus test security measures. These people are paid professionals who do hacker-type tricks, e.g. leave cardboard signs saying "bomb" in critical defence installations, hand-lettered notes saying "Your codebooks have been stolen" (they usually haven't been) inside safes, etc. After a successful penetration, some high-ranking security type shows up the next morning for a "security review" and finds the sign, note, etc. and all hell breaks loose. Serious successes of tiger teams sometimes lead to early retirement for base commanders and security officers (see the patch entry for an example).

2. Recently, and more generally, any official inspection team or special firefighting group called in to look at a problem.

A subset of tiger teams are professional crackers, testing the security of military computer installations by attempting remote attacks via networks or supposedly "secure" communication channels. Some of their escapades, if declassified, would probably rank among the greatest hacks of all times. The term has been adopted in commercial computer-security circles in this more specific sense.

[Jargon File]

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tick-list featuresTIFFtiger teamtight looptildeTILE Forth

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tight loop

<programming>

A loop of code that executes without releasing any resources to other programs or the operating system.

Consider the following pointless BASIC loop that counts upward indefinitely

 10 i = i + 1
 20 GOTO 10

Run on a single-user system such as MS-DOS this will not cause any problems. Run on a cooperative multitasking operating system such as Windows 3, the system would appear to freeze.

A pre-emptive multitasking operating system such as UNIX or Windows NT would "steal" cycles away from the program and continue to run other programs.

See also busy-wait and multitasking.

Last updated: 1999-05-06

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TIFFtiger teamtight looptildeTILE ForthTim Berners-Lee

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tilde

<character>

"~" ASCII character 126.

Common names are: ITU-T: tilde; squiggle; twiddle; not. Rare: approx; wiggle; swung dash; enyay; INTERCAL: sqiggle (sic).

Used as C's prefix bitwise negation operator; and in Unix csh, GNU Emacs, and elsewhere, to stand for the current user's home directory, or, when prefixed to a login name, for the given user's home directory.

The "swung dash" or "approximation" sign is not quite the same as tilde in typeset material but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare angle brackets).

[Has anyone else heard this called "tidal" (as in wave)?]

Last updated: 1996-10-18

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tiger teamtight looptildeTILE ForthTim Berners-Leetime bomb

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TILE Forth

<language>

A Forth interpreter in C for Unix by Mikael Patel <mip@sectra.se>. TILE Forth comes with many Forth libraries. It conforms to the Forth83 standard and is distributed under GPL.

Latest version: 2.1, as of 1991-11-13.

Availalbe via FTP from a GNU archive site.

Last updated: 1991-11-13

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tight looptildeTILE ForthTim Berners-Leetime bombtime complexity

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Tim Berners-Lee

<person>

The man who invented the web while working at the Center for European Particle Research (CERN). Now Director of the web Consortium.

Tim Berners-Lee graduated from the Queen's College at Oxford University, England, 1976. Whilst there he built his first computer with a soldering iron, TTL gates, an M6800 processor and an old television.

He then went on to work for Plessey Telecommunications, and D.G. Nash Ltd (where he wrote software for intelligent printers and a multi-tasking operating system), before joining CERN, where he designed a program called 'Enquire', which was never published, but formed the conceptual basis for today's web.

In 1984, he took up a fellowship at CERN, and in 1989, he wrote the first web server, "httpd", and the first client, "WorldWideWeb" a hypertext browser/editor which ran under NEXTSTEP. The program "WorldWideWeb" was first made available within CERN in December, and on the Internet as a whole in the summer of 1991.

In 1994, Tim joined the Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1999, he became the first holder of the 3Com Founders chair. He is also the author of "Weaving the Web", on the past present and future of the Web.

In 2001, Tim was made a fellow of The Royal Society.

Tim is married to Nancy Carlson. They have two children, born 1991 and 1994.

http://w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Longer.html.

Last updated: 2001-06-17

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tildeTILE ForthTim Berners-Leetime bombtime complexityTime Complex Simulator

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time bomb

<software, security>

A subspecies of logic bomb that is triggered by reaching some preset time, either once or periodically. There are numerous legends about time bombs set up by programmers in their employers' machines, to go off if the programmer is fired or laid off and is not present to perform the appropriate suppressing action periodically.

Interestingly, the only such incident for which we have been pointed to documentary evidence took place in the Soviet Union in 1986! A disgruntled programmer at the Volga Automobile Plant (where the Fiat clones called Ladas were manufactured) planted a time bomb which, a week after he'd left on vacation, stopped the entire main assembly line for a day. The case attracted lots of attention in the Soviet Union because it was the first cracking case to make it to court there. The perpetrator got 3 years in jail.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2001-09-15

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Tim Berners-Leetime bombtime complexityTime Complex Simulator

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time complexity

<complexity>

The way in which the number of steps required by an algorithm varies with the size of the problem it is solving. Time complexity is normally expressed as an order of magnitude, e.g. O(N^2) means that if the size of the problem (N) doubles then the algorithm will take four times as many steps to complete.

See also computational complexity, space complexity.

Last updated: 1996-05-08

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time bombtime complexityTime Complex Simulatortime division multiple access

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Time Complex Simulator

<simulation>

(Tcsim) Complex arithmetic version of Tsim.

Contact: ZOLA Technologies.

Last updated: 1996-01-18

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time complexityTime Complex Simulatortime division multiple access

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time division multiple access

time division multiplexing

Nearby terms:

Time Complex Simulatortime division multiple accesstime division multiplexing

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time division multiplexing

<communications>

(TDM) A type of multiplexing where two or more channels of information are transmitted over the same link by allocating a different time interval ("slot" or "slice") for the transmission of each channel. I.e. the channels take turns to use the link. Some kind of periodic synchronising signal or distinguishing identifier is usually required so that the receiver can tell which channel is which.

TDM becomes inefficient when traffic is intermittent because the time slot is still allocated even when the channel has no data to transmit. Statistical time division multiplexing was developed to overcome this problem.

Compare wavelength division multiplexing, frequency division multiplexing, code division multiplexing.

Last updated: 2001-06-27

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time division multiple accesstime division multiplexingTime Domain Reflectometer

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Time Domain Reflectometer

<hardware, networking>

(TDR) An electronic device for detecting and locating short- or open-circuits in an Ethernet cable. TDRs can also measure how the characteristic impedance of a line varies along its length.

Last updated: 1995-12-28

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time division multiplexingTime Domain Reflectometertimeout

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timeout

A period of time after which an error condition is raised if some event has not occured. A common example is sending a message. If the receiver does not acknowledge the message within some preset timeout period, a transmission error is assumed to have occured.

Last updated: 1995-11-09

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Time Domain Reflectometertimeouttime quantumtime-sharing

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time quantum

time slice

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Time Domain Reflectometertimeouttime quantumtime-sharingTime Sharing Option

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time-sharing

<operating system>

(Or "timesharing") An operating system feature allowing several users to run several tasks concurrently on one processor, or in parallel on many processors, usually providing each user with his own terminal for input and output. time-sharing is multi-user multitasking.

Last updated: 2009-11-23

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time quantumtime-sharingTime Sharing Optiontime shifting

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Time Sharing Option

<operating system>

(TSO) System software from IBM that provides time-sharing on an IBM mainframe running in an MVS environment.

Last updated: 2003-08-15

Nearby terms:

time-sharingTime Sharing Optiontime shiftingTime Simulator

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time shifting

<programming>

A technique used to work around problems due to the Year 2000 and the "millennium bug". Time shifting involves translating date fields in a database back by a fixed number of years to avoid year 2000 problems with the database management system.

Typically dates are shifted back 28 years so that the occurrence of leap years and days of the week match with the actual year.

Last updated: 2003-08-15

Nearby terms:

time-sharingTime Sharing Optiontime shiftingTime Simulatortime sink

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Time Simulator

<simulation>

(Tsim) A stack-based simulation language.

Contact: ZOLA Technologies.

Last updated: 1999-10-04

Nearby terms:

Time Sharing Optiontime shiftingTime Simulatortime sinktime slice

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time sink

(By analogy with "heat sink" or "current sink") A project that consumes unbounded amounts of time.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1995-02-07

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time shiftingTime Simulatortime sinktime slicetimes-or-divided-by

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time slice

<operating system>

(Or "time quantum", "quantum") The period of time for which a process is allowed to run uninterrupted in a pre-emptive multitasking operating system.

The scheduler is run once every time slice to choose the next process to run. If the time slice is too short then the scheduler will consume too much processing time but if it is too long then processes may not be able to respond to external events quickly enough.

Last updated: 1998-11-06

Nearby terms:

Time Simulatortime sinktime slicetimes-or-divided-bytime T

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times-or-divided-by

<jargon>

(By analogy with "plus-or-minus") A term occasionally used when describing the uncertainty factor associated with a estimate, for either humorous or brutally honest effect.

For example, a software project usually has a scheduling uncertainty factor of at least two.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2009-05-29

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time sinktime slicetimes-or-divided-bytime TTime to Live

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time T

/ti:m T/ An unspecified but usually well-understood time, often used in conjunction with a later time T+1. "We'll meet on campus at time T or at Louie's at time T+1" means, in the context of going out for dinner: "We can meet on campus and go to Louie's, or we can meet at Louie's itself a bit later." (Louie's was a Chinese restaurant in Palo Alto that was a favourite with hackers.) Had the number 30 been used instead of the number 1, it would have implied that the travel time from campus to Louie's is 30 minutes; whatever time T is (and that hasn't been decided on yet), you can meet half an hour later at Louie's than you could on campus and end up eating at the same time.

See also since time T equals minus infinity.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1994-12-12

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time slicetimes-or-divided-bytime TTime to Livetime zone

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Time to Live

(TTL) A field in the Internet Protocol header which indicates how many more hops this packet should be allowed to make before being discarded or returned.

Last updated: 1994-12-12

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times-or-divided-bytime TTime to Livetime zoneTINCTinman

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time zone

One of approximately 24 longitudinal divisions of the globe, nominally 15 degrees wide, in which clocks show the same time. Some zones follow the boundaries of states or territories, others differ from neighbouring zones by more or less than one hour.

Computers can be programmed to take into account the time zone each user is working in, which is not necessarily the same as the zone the computer is in.

See also TZ.

Last updated: 1997-07-20

Nearby terms:

times-or-divided-bytime TTime to Livetime zoneTINCTinmantinman+

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TINC

There Is No Cabal

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time TTime to Livetime zoneTINCTinmantinman+TINTtint

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Tinman

<language>

The third of the series of DoD requirements that led to Ada. Written by HOLWG, DoD, Jan 1976.

See Strawman, Woodenman, Ironman, Steelman.

Last updated: 1976-01-01

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time TTime to Livetime zoneTINCTinmantinman+TINTtintTiny

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tinman+

Macro language for Apple II? Published in DDJ?

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Time to Livetime zoneTINCTinmantinman+TINTtintTinyTiny BASIC

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TINT

Interpreted version of JOVIAL.

[Sammet 1969, p. 528].

Nearby terms:

TINCTinmantinman+TINTtintTinyTiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter Language

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tint

hue

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tinman+TINTtintTinyTiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter Language

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Tiny

1. A language which provides concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.

2. A tool written by Michael Wolfe <mwolfe@cse.ogi.edu> at Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology for examining array data dependence algorithms and program transformations for scientific computations.

Extended Tiny was used to implement the Omega test. Michael Wolfe has also made extensions to his version of tiny.

Last updated: 1994-12-12

Nearby terms:

TINTtintTinyTiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter LanguageTiny Clos

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Tiny BASIC

<language>

A dialect of BASIC developed by Dr. Wang [Wong?] in the late 1970s. Tiny BASIC was 2K bytes in size and was loaded from paper tape. It ran on almost any Intel 8080 or Zilog Z80 microprocessor for which the user could provide the necessary I/O driver software.

Tiny BASIC was distributed as [the first ever?] freeware. The program listing contained the following phrases "All Wrongs reserved" and "CopyLeft", he obviously wasn't interested in money.

See also Tiny Basic Interpreter Language.

[More info?]

Last updated: 1997-09-12

Nearby terms:

tintTinyTiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter LanguageTiny Clos

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Tiny Basic Interpreter Language

<language>

(TBIL) The inner interpreter of Tom Pittman's set of Tiny Basics in Dr Dobb's Journal.

Last updated: 1997-09-12

Nearby terms:

TinyTiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter LanguageTiny ClosTIP

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Tiny Clos

A core part of Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) ported to Scheme and rebuilt using a MOP (Metaobject Protocol). This should be interesting to those who want to use MOPs without using a full Common Lisp or Dylan.

The first release works with MIT Scheme 11.74.

ftp://parcftp.xerox.com/pub/mops/. E-mail: Gregor Kiczales <gregor@parc.xerox.com>. Mailing list: mops (administered by <gregor@parc.xerox.com>).

Last updated: 1992-12-14

Nearby terms:

Tiny BASICTiny Basic Interpreter LanguageTiny ClosTIPTIPL

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TIP

1. Texas Instruments Pascal.

2. A Unix program for interactive communication via serial lines.

Unix manual page: tip(1).

Nearby terms:

Tiny Basic Interpreter LanguageTiny ClosTIPTIPLtip of the ice-cube

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TIPL

1. Teach IPL. An interpretive IPL teaching system.

[Sammet 1969, p. 393].

2. A dialect of IGL.

Nearby terms:

Tiny ClosTIPTIPLtip of the ice-cubetired irontits on a keyboard

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tip of the ice-cube

[IBM] The visible part of something small and insignificant. Used as an ironic comment in situations where "tip of the iceberg" might be appropriate if the subject were at all important.

[Jargon File]

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TIPTIPLtip of the ice-cubetired irontits on a keyboardtj

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tired iron

[IBM] Hardware that is perfectly functional but far enough behind the state of the art to have been superseded by new products, presumably with sufficient improvement in bang-per-buck that the old stuff is starting to look a bit like a dinosaur.

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TIPLtip of the ice-cubetired irontits on a keyboardtjTk

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tits on a keyboard

<jargon>

Small bumps on certain keycaps to help touch-typists find the home keys (ASDF and JKL;) without looking. They are found on the "F" and "J" of a QWERTY and the "5" of a numeric keypad. The Macintosh, perverse as usual, has, or had, them on the "D" and "K" keys.

This term is based on the vernacular American expression "as useful as tits on a boar" (or boar-hog, bull, bullfrog, or many other variants), meaning "not useful".

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1998-02-25

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tip of the ice-cubetired irontits on a keyboardtjTktk

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tj

<networking>

The country code for Tajikistan.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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tip of the ice-cubetired irontits on a keyboardtjTktkTK-90X

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Tk

<programming, graphics>

A GUI library, generally used with TCL by John Ousterhout, but also available from within C or Perl. Tk is available for X Window System, Microsoft Windows and Macintosh. Tk looks very similar to Motif.

Version 3.5.

ftp://ftp.cs.berkeley.edu/ucb/tcl/.

Last updated: 1995-11-09

Nearby terms:

tired irontits on a keyboardtjTktkTK-90XTK-95T. Kohonen

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tk

<networking>

The country code for Tokelau.

Last updated: 1999-01-27

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tits on a keyboardtjTktkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!Solver

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TK-90X

<computer>

A Brazilian clone, manufactured by Micro Digital, of the British Sinclair Research ZX Spectrum 8-bit microcomputer. It differed from the standard Spectrum by adding an Interface 2-compatible joystick interface, and extra BASIC commands to aid programming and graphics-editing. Because of these differences, it was slightly incompatible with the standard Spectrum.

A later model, the TK-95, which boasted an improved keyboard (similar to the Commodore 64's) and a more compatible ROM, was little more than a Timex TC2048 (another Spectrum clone) in disguise.

comp.sys.sinclair FAQ.

["comp.sys.sinclair FAQ", D Burke M Fayzullin P Kendall et al, pub. Philip Kendall 1998]

Last updated: 1998-11-09

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tits on a keyboardtjTktkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0

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TK-95

TK-90X

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tits on a keyboardtjTktkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLA

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T. Kohonen

<person>

A researcher at the University of Helsinki who has been studying neural networks for many years with the idea of modelling as closely as possible the behaviour of biological systems. His name is commonly associated with a particular kind of neural network in which there are only two kinds of neurons (see McCulloch-Pitts), input and others. All the input neurons are connected to all others and the others are connected only to their other nearest neighbors. The training algorithm is a relatively simple one based on the geometric layout of the neurons, and makes use of simulated annealing.

Last updated: 1994-10-19

Nearby terms:

tjTktkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAs

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TK!Solver

Software Arts 1983. Numerical constraint-oriented language. "The TK!Solver Book", M. Konopasek et al, McGraw-Hill 1984.

Nearby terms:

TktkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLB

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TL0

Thread Language Zero

Nearby terms:

tkTK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLD

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TL1

Transaction Language 1.

A subset of ITU-T's MML from Bellcore, with simpler syntax. TL1 is similar to USL. It is used in communications between telephone operating systems and remote network test equipment.

[OTGR, TR-TSY-000439, section 12, Bellcore].

Last updated: 1994-12-14

Nearby terms:

TK-90XTK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLI

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TLA

three-letter acronym

Nearby terms:

TK-95T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/I

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TLAs

<jargon>

As of 2014-08-14, this dictionary included 1285 three-letter acronyms, which is 7% of the 26^3 = 17576 possible.

Here's a grep command to find them:

	egrep '^[A-Z][A-Z][A-Z]$' Dictionary

or a GNU Emacs command:

	(occur "^[A-Z][A-Z][A-Z]$")

Here they are:

AAC, AAL, AAP, ABC, ABI, ABM, ABP, ABR, ACA, ACE, ACF, ACK, ACL, ACM, ACP, ACT, ADC, ADL, ADM, ADO, ADR, ADS, ADT, AED, AEP, AES, AFJ, AFK, AFP, AFS, AGL, AGP, AIA, AID, AIR, AIT, AIX, AKC, AKL, ALC, ALF, ALM, ALP, ALU, AMD, AMI, AML, AMO, AMP, AMS, AND, ANI, ANL, ANR, ANS, ANU, AOL, AOP, AOS, APA, APC, APE, API, APL, APM, APT, AQL, ARC, ARL, ARM, ARP, ARQ, ART, ASA, ASE, ASF, ASK, ASL, ASM, ASN, ASP, ASR, AST, ATA, ATK, ATM, ATS, ATX, AUI, AUP, AVC, AVI, AVS, AWE, AWG, AWT, AYT, BAD, BAL, BAP, BBC, BBL, BBS, BCC, BCD, BCL, BCS, BDC, BDL, BEA, BEG, BEL, BER, BFI, BGA, BGP, BIP, BLT, BMF, BMP, BNC, BNF, BOA, BOF, BOS, BPI, BPR, BPS, BQS, BRB, BRH, BRI, BRS, BSA, BSD, BSI, BSL, BSS, BST, BTB, BTS, BTW, BWQ, CAD, CAE, CAF, CAI, CAL, CAM, CAN, CAP, CAR, CAS, CAT, CAV, CBD, CBN, CBR, CBT, CBV, CCD, CCL, CCP, CCR, CCS, CDA, CDC, CDE, CDF, CDL, CDM, CDR, CDS, CDW, CEN, CER, CFD, CFP, CGA, CGI, CGM, CHI, CID, CIF, CIL, CIM, CIO, CIR, CIS, CIX, CJK, CLI, CLM, CLP, CLR, CLU, CLV, CLX, CMA, CMC, CML, CMM, CMP, CMS, CMU, CMZ, CNC, CNI, CNN, CNR, COM, COS, CPE, CPI, CPL, CPM, CPS, CPU, CRC, CRL, CRM, CRT, CSG, CSL, CSM, CSO, CSP, CSR, CSS, CSU, CSV, CTC, CTI, CTL, CTS, CTY, CUA, CUL, CUT, CVS, CWI, DAA, DAC, DAG, DAS, DAT, DAU, DBA, DBC, DBH, DCA, DCC, DCE, DCG, DCI, DCL, DCP, DCS, DCT, DDB, DDE, DDL, DDM, DDN, DDO, DDP, DDR, DDS, DDT, DDW, DEA, DEC, DED, DEK, DER, DES, DEX, DFA, DFC, DFD, DFS, DFT, DGL, DIB, DID, DIL, DIM, DIN, DIP, DLC, DLE, DLG, DLL, DLM, DLP, DLT, DMA, DME, DMI, DML, DMM, DMS, DMU, DMZ, DNF, DNS, DOA, DOE, DOF, DOL, DOM, DOS, DPA, DPB, DPL, DPN, DPP, DPS, DRM, DSA, DSE, DSI, DSL, DSM, DSN, DSO, DSP, DSR, DSS, DST, DSU, DSW, DTD, DTE, DTP, DTR, DTS, DUA, DVD, DVI, DXF, EAF, EAG, EAI, EAX, ECC, ECL, ECM, ECP, EDA, EDF, EDI, EDL, EDM, EDP, EDS, EER, EFF, EFI, EFL, EFT, EGA, EGP, EIA, EJB, ELF, ELI, ELP, EMA, EMC, EMI, EML, EMM, EMS, EMX, ENQ, ENS, EOF, EOL, EOR, EOT, EOU, EPL, EPP, EPS, ERA, ERC, ERD, ERM, ERP, ESA, ESC, ESD, ESF, ESI, ESL, ESP, ESR, ETB, ETC, ETL, ETM, ETX, EVE, EXE, FAC, FAD, FAP, FAQ, FAT, FCB, FCP, FCS, FDC, FDD, FDT, FEA, FEC, FED, FEL, FFP, FFT, FGL, FHS, FIR, FIX, FLI, FMQ, FMS, FMV, FNC, FOD, FPA, FPM, FPU, FQL, FRA, FRL, FSB, FSF, FSK, FSL, FSM, FSP, FTP, FTW, FTX, FUD, FXO, FXS, FYA, FYI, GAL, GAN, GAP, GAT, GCC, GCL, GCR, GCT, GDA, GDB, GDI, GEA, GEI, GEM, GFR, GFS, GHC, GIF, GIN, GIP, GIS, GKS, GLB, GLS, GLU, GMD, GMT, GNN, GNU, GOL, GOM, GPF, GPL, GPM, GPS, GPV, GPX, GRE, GRG, GSI, GSL, GSM, GSS, GTL, GUI, GVL, GWM, HAL, HCF, HCI, HCS, HDA, HDC, HDD, HDF, HDL, HDM, HEP, HFC, HID, HLL, HMA, HMP, HNC, HOL, HPF, HPL, HPR, HSB, HSC, HSM, HSV, HTH, HVD, IAB, IAD, IAL, IAM, IAP, IAR, IAS, IAW, IBM, ICA, ICE, ICI, ICL, ICQ, ICT, ICW, IDD, IDE, IDL, IEC, IEF, IEN, IFC, IFF, IFP, IFS, IFX, IGC, IGL, IGP, IGS, IGU, IHS, IHV, IIL, IIR, IIS, IIT, ILF, IMD, IML, IMO, IMP, IMR, IMS, IOI, IOS, IOW, IPA, IPC, IPE, IPL, IPS, IPT, IPX, IQL, IRC, IRL, IRM, IRQ, ISA, ISE, ISF, ISL, ISO, ISP, IST, ISV, ITP, ITS, ITU, IVR, IVY, IXC, IXO, JAD, JAZ, JCL, JCP, JDK, JES, JIT, JMS, JNI, JPL, JRE, JRL, JRN, JSA, JSF, JSP, JTB, JTC, JTS, JVM, KAP, KBS, KCL, KEE, KFX, KIS, KLB, KMS, KNI, KRC, KRL, KRS, KSL, KSR, KTH, KVM, LAN, LAP, LAT, LAU, LAX, LBA, LBE, LBL, LBX, LCC, LCD, LCF, LCL, LCP, LCS, LDB, LDL, LDP, LDT, LEC, LED, LEO, LER, LGN, LIF, LIS, LKA, LLC, LLP, LML, LNF, LOC, LOL, LOM, LOP, LPC, LPF, LPG, LPI, LPL, LPS, LPT, LRC, LRU, LSA, LSB, LSE, LSL, LSP, LSR, LTL, LTR, LUG, LUN, LVD, LWP, MAC, MAD, MAL, MAN, MAO, MAP, MAS, MAU, MBS, MCA, MCC, MCI, MCL, MCP, MCS, MDA, MDF, MDI, MDL, MFC, MFE, MFM, MHS, MIB, MIF, MIG, MII, MIS, MIT, MIX, MJS, MLL, MMI, MML, MMO, MMS, MMU, MMX, MNP, MOO, MOS, MPC, MPG, MPI, MPL, MPP, MPV, MPX, MQG, MRI, MRP, MRS, MSB, MSM, MSN, MSS, MSX, MTA, MTS, MTU, MUA, MUD, MUP, MVC, MVS, MXI, NAG, NAK, NAS, NAT, NAU, NBS, NBT, NCD, NCP, NCS, NDL, NDS, NEC, NFA, NFS, NFT, NGL, NIC, NIH, NII, NIL, NIS, NLM, NLP, NLS, NLX, NMI, NMU, NNI, NOC, NOL, NOR, NOS, NOT, NPC, NPL, NQS, NRZ, NSE, NSF, NSI, NSS, NTP, NTU, NVL, NVS, OAP, OBE, OBJ, OCL, OCP, OCR, OCS, OCX, ODA, ODC, ODI, ODP, ODS, ODT, OEM, OFA, OIC, OID, OIL, OLC, OLE, OMA, OMF, OMG, OMR, OMS, OMT, ONC, OOA, OOD, OOF, OOP, OPC, OPF, OPS, ORB, ORM, OSA, OSD, OSE, OSF, OSI, OSP, OTI, OTP, OTT, OWL, PAD, PAL, PAM, PAP, PAT, PAW, PBD, PBM, PBX, PCA, PCB, PCF, PCI, PCL, PCM, PCN, PCS, PCU, PDA, PDC, PDF, PDH, PDL, PDM, PDP, PDS, PDU, PEM, PEP, PER, PEX, PFE, PFL, PFP, PGA, PGP, PHP, PIC, PID, PIE, PIL, PIM, PIN, PIP, PIT, PKE, PKI, PLC, PLD, PLL, PMC, PML, PMP, PNG, PNP, POA, POC, POE, POM, POP, POR, POS, PPC, PPD, PPL, PPM, PPN, PPP, PQS, PRA, PRI, PRL, PSA, PSD, PSF, PSI, PSK, PSL, PSN, PSO, PSU, PTF, PTI, PTN, PTT, PUB, PVC, PVM, PWM, QAM, QBE, QCA, QIC, QMW, QNX, QPE, RAD, RAL, RAM, RAS, RCC, RCL, RCS, RDF, RDI, RDL, RDP, RDS, REC, REM, REP, REX, RFC, RFE, RFI, RFP, RFT, RGB, RIP, RJE, RKM, RLE, RLF, RLL, RMI, RMS, RNF, ROM, RPC, RPG, RPI, RPL, RPM, RPN, RPT, RRL, RRS, RSA, RSI, RSL, RSN, RSS, RTF, RTI, RTL, RTM, RTP, RTS, RTT, RWP, SAA, SAC, SAD, SAL, SAM, SAN, SAP, SAR, SAS, SBD, SBE, SBM, SBR, SCA, SCC, SCI, SCL, SCM, SCO, SDE, SDF, SDH, SDI, SDK, SDL, SDM, SDP, SDS, SEA, SEC, SED, SEE, SEI, SEL, SEM, SEP, SET, SEX, SFA, SFL, SGI, SHA, SIA, SIG, SIL, SIM, SIP, SIR, SKU, SMB, SMG, SMI, SML, SMM, SMP, SMS, SMT, SNA, SNI, SNR, SOA, SOE, SOH, SOJ, SOL, SOM, SOS, SPC, SPD, SPE, SPG, SPI, SPL, SPM, SPS, SPX, SQE, SQL, SQR, SRI, SRL, SRP, SSA, SSD, SSE, SSI, SSL, SSO, SSR, STB, STD, STP, STX, SUB, SVC, SVG, SVS, SWL, SWT, SYN, TAA, TAB, TAC, TAL, TAO, TAP, TBF, TBK, TCB, TCM, TCO, TCP, TDD, TDF, TDI, TDM, TDR, TEI, TET, TFT, TGA, TIA, TIP, TLA, TLB, TLD, TLI, TLS, TMG, TNC, TNX, TOK, TOP, TOS, TPA, TPF, TPL, TPO, TPS, TPU, TPX, TRO, TRS, TSO, TSP, TSR, TSV, TTD, TTL, TTS, TUB, TUI, TXL, UAN, UAT, UAW, UBD, UCB, UCP, UCS, UCX, UDF, UDP, UFO, UIL, UIS, UKC, ULP, UMB, UML, UNC, UNI, UPS, URC, URI, URL, URN, USB, USE, USL, USP, USR, UTC, UTF, UTP, VAL, VAN, VAR, VAX, VBA, VCD, VCL, VCR, VDL, VDM, VDT, VDU, VEE, VEL, VGA, VGX, VHE, VHS, VIF, VIM, VLB, VLM, VME, VML, VMS, VOS, VPL, VPN, VQF, VRC, VSE, VSF, VSP, VSX, VTC, VTS, VTW, VUE, VUP, VXI, WAM, WAN, WAP, WBS, WCL, WDM, WEB, WEP, WFL, WFW, WGL, WIC, WLL, WMA, WMI, WML, WMV, WOM, WPA, WPG, WPI, WRT, WSL, WTF, WTH, WWW, XDL, XDR, XFS, XGA, XIE, XML, XMM, XMS, XNF, XNS, XON, XPC, XPG, XPL, XRN, XSB, XSD, XSI, XSL, XTI, XTP, XUI, XUL, XVT, XXX, YSM, ZAP, ZFC, ZIF, ZIL, ZOG, ZUG

Last updated: 2014-08-14

Nearby terms:

T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT Lisp

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TLB

Translation Look-aside Buffer

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T. KohonenTK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTM

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TLD

top-level domain

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TK!SolverTL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm

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TLI

Transport Layer Interface

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TL0TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDL

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TL/I

<language>

An intermediate language for Turing Machines.

["Examples of Formal Semantics", D. Knuth in Symp on Semantics of Algorithmic Languages, E. Engeler ed, LNM 188, Springer 1971, pp. 212-235].

Last updated: 1994-12-02

Nearby terms:

TL1TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDLTMG

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T Lisp

T

Nearby terms:

TLATLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDLTMGTMRC

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TLS

Transport Layer Security protocol

Nearby terms:

TLAsTLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDLTMGTMRC

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TM

1. Turing Machine.

2. A formal database specification language.

[Jargon File]

Nearby terms:

TLBTLDTLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDLTMGTMRCTMRCie

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tm

<networking>

The country code for Turkmenistan.

Heavily used for vanity domains because it looks like the abbreviation for "trademark".

Last updated: 1999-01-27

Nearby terms:

TLITL/IT LispTLSTMtm(TM)TMDLTMGTMRCTMRCieTMS 9900

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