A function f : D -> E, where D and E are cpos, is continuous if it is monotonic and

f (lub Z) = lub { f z | z in Z }for all directed sets Z in D. In other words, the image of the lub is the lub of any directed image.

All additive functions (functions which preserve all lubs) are continuous. A continuous function has a least fixed point if its domain has a least element, bottom (i.e. it is a cpo or a "pointed cpo" depending on your definition of a cpo). The least fixed point is

fix f = lub {f^n bottom | n = 0..infinity}Last updated: 1994-11-30

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<*simulation*> (CSMP) A program for simulation of dynamics of
continuous systems. CSMP is similar to CSSL.

["A Guide to Using CSMP - The Continuous System Modeling Program", Frank H. Speckhart et al, P-H 1976].

Last updated: 1995-02-23

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<*simulation*> (CSSL) Versions include ACSL, HYTRAN, SL-I,
S/360 and CSMP.

CSSL(Continuous System Simulation Language) versions I, II, III, IV and V have been commercially available since 1968. CSSL-I was developed for Jet Propulsion Labs in 1968. CSSL-III was widely distributed from 1969-1975. CSSL-IV (interactive version) was developed by R. Nilsen and ran on over 30 different computers. Currently CSSL-V is marketed by Simulation Services International and available on PCs and workstations.

["The SCi Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL)", Simulation, 9(6), Dec 1967].

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Last updated: 2003-04-15

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<*communications, history*> (CW) A term from early radio history
for a transmitter using an electron tube (valve) oscillator
to constantly add energy to a tuned circuit connected to an
antenna.

The term is used in contrast with the use of a spark gap to initiate a damped sinusoidal wave in a tuned circuit consisting of an inductor and capacitor. The energy in this circuit constantly changes between the capacitor's electrostatic field and the inductor's magnetic field. The energy is then coupled to the radiating antenna, loosely (so as not to dampen the wave too quickly).

Some radio amateurs understand "CW" to mean transmission by means a single frequency signal which is either on or off (e.g. Morse code), as opposed to a carrier which varies continuously in amplitude, frequency or phase. Some would even call the former "unmodulated" even though turning on and off is actually the most extreme form of amplitude modulation.

Last updated: 2009-11-24

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Copyright Denis Howe 1985