<programming> (Or "hash", "map", "dictionary") An array where the indices are not just integers but may be arbitrary strings.
awk and its descendants (e.g. Perl) have associative arrays which are implemented using hash coding for faster look-up.
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Nearby terms: Association of American Publishers « Association of C and C++ Users « Association of Lisp Users « associative array » associative memory » Associative Memory Parallel Processing Language » associativity