Plan 9

<operating system>

(Named after the classically bad, exceptionally low-budget SF film "Plan 9 from Outer Space") An operating system developed at Bell Labs by many researchers previously intimately involved with Unix.

Plan 9 is superficially Unix-like but features far finer control over the name-space (on a per-process basis) and is inherently distributed and scalable.

Plan 9 is divided according to service functions. CPU servers concentrate computing power into large multiprocessors; file servers provide repositories for storage and terminals give each user of the system a dedicated computer with bitmap screen and mouse on which to run a window system. The sharing of computing and file storage services provides a sense of community for a group of programmers, amortises costs and centralises and hence simplifies management and administration.

The pieces communicate by a single protocol, built above a reliable data transport layer offered by an appropriate network, that defines each service as a rooted tree of files. Even for services not usually considered as files, the unified design permits some simplification. Each process has a local file name space that contains attachments to all services the process is using and thereby to the files in those services. One of the most important jobs of a terminal is to support its user's customised view of the entire system as represented by the services visible in the name space.

http://plan9.bell-labs.com/plan9dist/.

Last updated: 2005-02-15

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plaintextPLAN.planPlan 9Planetplan filePLANITPlankalkül

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Planet

["An Experiment in Language Design for Distributed Systems", D. Crookes et al, Soft Prac & Exp 14(10):957-971 (Oct 1984)].

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plan file

<operating system>

On Unix systems that support finger, the ".plan" file in a user's home directory is displayed when the user is fingered. This feature was originally intended to be used to keep potential fingerers apprised of one's location and near-future plans, but has been turned almost universally to humorous and self-expressive purposes (like a sig block). See also Hacking X for Y.

A later innovation in plan files was the introduction of "scrolling plan files" which are one-dimensional animations made using only the printable ASCII character set, carriage return and line feed, avoiding terminal specific escape sequences, since the finger command will (for security reasons; see letterbomb) not pass the escape character.

Scrolling .plan files have become art forms in miniature, and some sites have started competitions to find who can create the longest running, funniest, and most original animations. A compiler (ASP) is available on Usenet for producing them. Typical animation components include:

 Centipede:		 mmmmme
 Lorry/Truck:		 oo-oP
 Andalusian Video Snail: _@/

In the mid-1990s WWW home pages largely supplanted .plan files, providing a much richer forum for the publication of personal minutiae and digital creativity.

See also twirling baton.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1998-01-16

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.planPlan 9Planetplan filePLANITPlankalkülPLANNERPlanner-73

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PLANIT

Programming LANguage for Interaction and Teaching. CAI language. "PLANIT - A Flexible Language Designed for Computer-Human Interaction", S.L. Feingold, Proc FJCC 31, AFIPS (Fall 1967) Sammet 1969, p.706.

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Plankalkül

<language, history>

(Or "Plankalkuel" if you don't have umlauts). The first programming language, designed by Konrad Zuse, ca. 1945. Zuse wrote "Rechenplan allgemeiner Struktur" in 1944 which developed into Plankalkül. Plankalkül included arrays and records and used a style of assignment in which the new value appears on the right.

Zuse wrote Plankalkül for his Z3 computer (finished before 1945) and implemented it on there as well. Much of his work may have been either lost or confiscated in the aftermath of World War II.

ESR Plankalkül.

["The Plankalkül of Konrad Zuse", F.L. Bauer et al, CACM 15(7):678-685, Jul 1972].

Last updated: 2002-05-28

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Planetplan filePLANITPlankalkülPLANNERPlanner-73PLANS

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PLANNER

A language for writing theorem provers by Carl Hewitt <hewitt@ai.mit.edu> MIT 1967. Never fully implemented.

CONNIVER was an outgrowth of PLANNER and microPLANNER a subset. PLASMA is a PLANNER-like system modelled on Actors. See also POPLER, QLISP, Scheme.

["PLANNER: A Language for Proving Theorems in Robots", Carl Hewitt, Proc IJCAI-69, Wash DC, May 1969].

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Planner-73

The original name for PLASMA.

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PLANITPlankalkülPLANNERPlanner-73PLANSplantsPLASMAPlastic Pin Grid Array

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PLANS

Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling. A PL/I preprocessor, used for developing scheduling algorithms. "A User's Guide to the Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling", H.R. Ramsey et al, TR SAI-77-068-DEN, Science Applications Inc (Jun 1977).

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plants

["The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants", Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Aristid Lindenmayer. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990. 3-54097297-8].

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Planner-73PLANSplantsPLASMAPlastic Pin Grid Arrayplatform

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