<person> Alan M. Turing, 1912-06-22/3? - 1954-06-07. A
British mathematician, inventor of the Turing Machine.
Turing also proposed the Turing test. Turing's work was
fundamental in the theoretical foundations of computer
science.

Turing returned to England in 1938 and during World War II, he
worked in the British Foreign Office. He masterminded
operations at Bletchley Park, UK which were highly
successful in cracking the Nazis "Enigma" codes during World
War II. Some of his early advances in computer design were
inspired by the need to perform many repetitive symbolic
manipulations quickly. Before the building of the Colossus
computer this work was done by a roomful of women.

He also worked on theories of artificial intelligence, and
on the application of mathematical theory to biological forms.
In 1952 he published the first part of his theoretical study
of morphogenesis, the development of pattern and form in
living organisms.

Turing was gay, and died rather young under mysterious
circumstances. He was arrested for violation of British
homosexuality statutes in 1952. He died of potassium cyanide
poisoning while conducting electrolysis experiments. An
inquest concluded that it was self-administered but it is now
thought by some to have been an accident.

There is an excellent biography of Turing by Andrew Hodges,
subtitled "The Enigma of Intelligence" and a play based on it
called "Breaking the Code". There was also a popular summary
of his work in Douglas Hofstadter's book "Gödel, Escher,
Bach".