UTC

Coordinated Universal Time

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UTF

UCS transformation format

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UTF-8

<character>

(UCS transformation format 8) An ASCII-compatible multibyte Unicode and UCS encoding, used by Java and Plan 9.

The Unicode character set occupies a 16-bit code space. The most obvious Unicode encoding (known as UCS-2) consists of a sequence of 16-bit words. Such strings can contain bytes like '\0' or '/' which have a special meaning in filenames and other C library function parameters. In addition, the majority of Unix tools expects ASCII files and can't read 16-bit words as characters without major modifications. For these reasons, UCS-2 is not a suitable external encoding of Unicode in filenames, text files, environment variables, etc.

The ISO 10646 Universal Character Set (UCS), a superset of Unicode, occupies a 31-bit code space and the obvious UCS-4 encoding for it (a sequence of 32-bit words) has the same problems.

The UTF-8 encoding of Unicode and UCS avoids the problems of fixed-length Unicode encodings because an ASCII file encoded in UTF is exactly same as the original ASCII file and all non-ASCII characters are guaranteed to have the most significant bit set (bit 0x80). This means that normal tools for text searching etc. work as expected.

UTF-8 is defined in RFC 2279.

["File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSS_UTF)", X/Open Preliminary Specification, X/Open Company Ltd., Document Number: P316. This information also appears in ISO/IEC 10646, Annex P].

Plan 9 UTF manual entry.

Last updated: 1998-07-29

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utility

utility software

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utility-coder

<language>

A language for data manipulation and report generation.

["User's Manual for utility-coder", Cambridge Computer Association, Jul 1977].

Last updated: 1997-12-09

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utility program

utility software

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utility software

<tool>

(Or utility program, tool) Any software that performs some specific task that is secondary to the main purpose of using the computer (the latter would be called application programs) but is not essential to the operation of the computer (system software).

Many utilities could be considered as part of the system software, which can in turn be considered part of the operating system.

The following are some broad categories of utility software, specific types and examples.

* Disks

disk formatter: FDISK, format

defragmenter

disk checker: fsck

disk cleaner

system profiler

backup

file system compression

* Files and directories

list directory: ls, dir

copy, move, remove: cp, mv, rm, xcopy

archive: tar

compression: zip

format conversion: atob

comparison: diff

sort: sort

* Security

authentication: login

antivirus software: avast, Norton Antivirus

firewall: Zone Alarm, Windows firewall

encryption: gpg)

* Editors for general-purpose formats (as opposed to specific formats like a word processing document)

text editor: Emacs

binary editor, hex editor

* Communications

mail transfer agent: sendmail

e-mail notification: biff

file transfer: ftp, rcp, Firefox

file synchronisation: unison, briefcase

chat: Gaim, cu

directory services: bind, nslookup, whois

network diagnosis: ping, traceroute

remote access: rlogin, ssh

* Software development

compiler: gcc

build: make, ant

codewalker

preprocessor: cpp

debugger: adb, gdb

installation: apt-get, msiexec, patch

compiler compiler: yacc

* Hardware

device configuration: PCU, devman, stty

Last updated: 2007-02-02

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UTOPIST

<language>

A specification language for attribute grammars developed by E. Tyugu of the Academy of Science Estonia, Tallinn in 1983.

["Synthesis of a Semantic Processor from an Attribute Grammar", Prog and Comp Soft, 9(1):29-39, Jan 1983].

Last updated: 2007-02-02

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UTP

unshielded twisted pair

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UTRC

United Technologies Research Cente

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UTSL

<humour>

Use the Source Luke

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 1996-01-02

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