horizontal application

An application program common to different business processes, e.g. office automation.

Compare vertical application.

Last updated: 1994-12-12

horizontal encoding


An instruction set where each field (a bit or group of bits) in an instruction word controls some functional unit or gate directly, as opposed to vertical encoding where instruction fields are decoded (by hard-wired logic or microcode) to produce the control signals. Horizontal encoding allows all possible combinations of control signals (and therefore operations) to be expressed as instructions whereas vertical encoding uses a shorter instruction word but can only encode those combinations of operations built into the decoding logic.

An instruction set may use a mixture of horizontal and vertical encoding within each instruction. Because an architecture using horizontal encoding typically requires more instruction word bits it is sometimes known as a very long instruction word (VLIW) architecture.

Last updated: 1995-04-23

horizontal loop combination


horizontal microcode


Microcode using horizontal encoding.

Last updated: 1995-04-23

horizontal scan rate


(HSR) The measure of how many scan lines of pixels a monitor can display in one second, expressed in kHz (generally somewhere between 20 and 100 kHz).

The HSR is controlled by the horizontal sync signal generated by the video controller, but is limited by the speed with which the monitor can scan the electron beam horizontally across the screen and then return it to the beginning of the next line.

Last updated: 1996-02-09

horizontal tabulation


(tab, Control-I, HT, ASCII 9) A character which when displayed or printed causes the following character to be placed at the next "tabstop" - the column whose number is a multiple of the current tab width. Commonly (especially in Unix(?)) the tab width is eight, so, counting from the left margin (column zero), the tab stops are at columns 8, 16, 24, up to the width of the screen or page.

A tab width of four or two is often preferred when indenting program source code to conserve indentation.

Represented as "\t" in C, Unix, and derivatives.

Last updated: 1999-07-05

Nearby terms:

Hopfield networkhorizontal applicationhorizontal encoding

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