social engineering

<jargon, security>

A term used among crackers and samurai for cracking techniques that rely on weaknesses in wetware rather than software; the aim is to trick people into revealing passwords or other information that compromises a target system's security. Classic scams include phoning up a mark who has the required information and posing as a field service tech or a fellow employee with an urgent access problem. See also the tiger team story in the patch entry.

[Jargon File]

Last updated: 2006-11-22

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social network

<communications>

Any website designed to allow multiple users to publish content themselves. The information may be on any subject and may be for consumption by (potential) friends, mates, employers, employees, etc. The sites typically allow users to create a "profile" describing themselves and to exchange public or private messages and list other users or groups they are connected to in some way. There may be editorial content or the site may be entirely user-driven. Content may include text, images (e.g. http://flickr.com/), video (e.g. http://youtube.com/) or any other media.

Social networks on the the web are a natural extension of mailing lists and buletin boards. They are related to wikis like http://wikipedia.org/ but typically do not allow users to modify content once it has been submitted, though usually you can publish comments on others' submissions.

Different sites have different emphasis. For example, http://friendsreunited.co.uk/ (one of the earliest such sites) focusses on listing former acquaintances; http://myspace.com/ is music-oriented; http://linkedin.com/ aims to connect business partners; http://del.icio.us/, http://stumbleupon.com/ and http://digg.com/ are for exchanging links to favouirite websites. There are many more.

Sometimes the social aspects are a side-effect of bringing together people with shared interests, e.g. http://slashdot.org/ (IT), other times they become more important than the original purpose, e.g. http://worldofwarcraft.com/ (fantasy gaming).

Last updated: 2006-12-05

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social networking

social network

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social science number

(IBM) A statistic that is content-free, or nearly so. A measure derived via methods of questionable validity from data of a dubious and vague nature. Predictively, having a social science number in hand is seldom much better than nothing, and can be considerably worse. Management loves them.

See also numbers, math-out, pretty pictures.

Last updated: 1994-11-04

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socket

<networking>

The Berkeley Unix mechansim for creating a virtual connection between processes. Sockets interface Unix's standard I/O with its network communication facilities. They can be of two types, stream (bi-directional) or datagram (fixed length destination-addressed messages). The socket library function socket() creates a communications end-point or socket and returns a file descriptor with which to access that socket. The socket has associated with it a socket address, consisting of a port number and the local host's network address.

Unix manual page: socket(2).

Last updated: 1995-01-31

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Socket 1

x86 processor socket

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Socket 2

x86 processor socket

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Socket 3

x86 processor socket

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Socket 370

<hardware, standard, processor>

(PGA370) A physical and electrical specification for a motherboard processor socket. Socket 370 uses a square SPGA ZIF socket with 370 pins, arranged 37x37 (sometimes described as 19x19).

Intel originally designed Socket 370 for PPGA Celeron processors. Newer Socket 370 motherboards additionally support FC-PGA Celeron and Pentium III processors.

The difference between the two versions is electrical; some pins are used differently and voltage requirements have been changed from Intel's VRM 8.2 to VRM 8.4. In addition, Celeron processors require a 66 MHz front side bus (FSB), and Pentium III processors require a 100/133 MHz FSB.

Some older Socket 370 motherboards support VRM 8.4 and variable bus speeds, so adapters are available that convert the socket pinout to allow FC-PGA processors to work.

VIA's Cyrix III processor was designed to work with Socket 370 motherboards.

Intel Celeron Processor in PPGA form factor - Integration.

Pentium III Processors - Design Guidelines.

Last updated: 2000-08-26

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Socket 4

x86 processor socket

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Socket 5

x86 processor socket

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Socket 6

x86 processor socket

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Socket 7

<hardware, standard>

A physical and electrical specification for the x86 processor socket matching the pins on Pentium microprocessors manufactured by Intel, and compatibles made by Cyrix, AMD and others. Any CPU chip conforming to this specification can be plugged into any conforming motherboard.

Supported processors include: 2.5V - 3.5V Pentiums 75-233 MHz, AMD K5 through K6, Cyrix 6x86 (and MX) P120 - P233.

Socket 7 uses a SPGA socket, either a 296 pin LIF or a 321 pin ZIF arranged as 37x37 or 19x19 (depending on who you speak to!).

See also Super 7.

Intel's Pentium II processor uses Slot 1 mounting.

[Pin-out?]

Last updated: 1999-08-29

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Socket 8

<hardware, standard>

A physical and electrical specification for the x86 processor socket matching the pins on a Pentium Pro microprocessor.

Socket 8 uses a dual pattern PGA/SPGA LIF/ZIF socket with 387 pins, arranged 24x26.

Last updated: 1999-08-04

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SOCKS

<security>

A security package that allows a host behind a firewall to use finger, FTP, telnet, Gopher, and Mosaic to access resources outside the firewall while maintaining the security requirements.

[The Security FAQ, Usenet newsgroups comp.security.misc, comp.security.unix, alt.security].

Last updated: 1995-01-31

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SOCRATIC

An early interactive learning system (not a language(?)) developed at Bolt, Beranek & Newman.

[Sammet 1969, p. 702].

Last updated: 1994-11-04

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