## full-custom

Design of integrated circuits at the transistor or polygon level. This is in contrast to the use of libraries of components. Full-custom design requires considerable skill and experience and is usually only feasible for simple circuits, especially ones with much repetition, such as memory device, where a small saving in the size and power consumption of a component will yield a large overall saving.

Last updated: 1994-12-01

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## full-duplex

(fdx, from telegraphy) 1. A type of duplex communications channel which carries data in both directions at once.

On purely digital connections, full-duplex communication requires two pairs of wires. On analog networks or in digital networks using carriers, it is achieved by dividing the bandwidth of the line into two frequencies, one for sending, and the other for receiving.

2. An obsolete term for remote echo.

Compare simplex, half-duplex, double-duplex.

Last updated: 2001-07-21

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## full-duplex Switched Ethernet

(FDSE) A Switched Ethernet link which can carry data in both directions simultaneously, doubling transmission capacity from the usual 10 to 20 megabits per second.

Last updated: 1996-06-20

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## full laziness

A transformation, described by Wadsworth in 1971, which ensures that subexpressions in a function body which do not depend on the function's arguments are only evaluated once. E.g. each time the function

```	f x = x + sqrt 4

```
is applied, (sqrt 4) will be evaluated. Since (sqrt 4) does not depend on x, we could transform this to:

```	f x = x + sqrt4
sqrt4 = sqrt 4

```
We have replaced the dynamically created (sqrt 4) with a single shared constant which, in a graph reduction system, will be evaluated the first time it is needed and then updated with its value.

Last updated: 1994-11-09

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## full-motion video

<video>

(FMV) Any kind of video that is theoretically capable of changing the entire content on the screen fast enough that the transitions are not obvious to the human eye, i.e. about 24 times a second or more. In practise most video encoding relies on the fact that in most video there is relatively little change from one frame to the next. This allows for compression of the video data.

The term is used, chiefly in computer games, in contrast to techniques such as the use of sprites that move against a more-or-less fixed background.

Last updated: 2011-01-04

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## full outer join

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## fully associative cache

A type of cache in which data from any address can be stored in any cache location. The whole address must be used as the tag (the value that identifies a block of data in the cache). All tags must be compared simultaneously (associatively) with the requested address and if one matches then its associated data is accessed. This requires an associative memory to hold the tags which makes this form of cache more expensive. It does however solve the problem of contention for cache locations (cache conflict) since a block need only be flushed when the whole cache is full and then the block to flush can be selected in a more efficient way.

The alternatives are direct mapped cache or set associative cache.

Last updated: 2013-08-09

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## Fully Automated Compiling Technique

<language>

(FACT, "Honeywell-800 Business Compiler") A pre-COBOL English-like business data processing language for the Honeywell 800, developed ca. 1959.

[Sammet 1969, p. 327].

Last updated: 1994-12-01

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## fully lazy lambda lifting

John Hughes's optimisation of lambda lifting to give full laziness. Maximal free expressions are shared to minimise the amount of recalculation. Each inner sub-expression is replaced by a function of its maximal free expressions (expressions not containing any bound variable) applied to those expressions. E.g.

```	f = \ x . (\ y . (+) (sqrt x) y)

```
((+) (sqrt x)) is a maximal free expression in (\ y . (+) (sqrt x) y) so this inner abstraction is replaced with

```	(\ g . \ y . g y) ((+) (sqrt x))

```
Now, if a partial application of f is shared, the result of evaluating (sqrt x) will also be shared rather than re-evaluated on each application of f. As Chin notes, the same benefit could be achieved without introducing the new higher-order function, g, if we just extracted out (sqrt x).

This is similar to the code motion optimisation in procedural languages where constant expressions are moved outside a loop or procedure.

Last updated: 1994-12-01

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## fully qualified domain name

(FQDN) The full name of a system, consisting of its local hostname and its domain name, including a top-level domain (tld). For example, "venera" is a hostname and "venera.isi.edu" is an FQDN. An FQDN should be sufficient to determine a unique Internet address for any host on the Internet. This process, called "name resolution", uses the Domain Name System (DNS).

With the explosion of interest in the Internet following the advent of the web, domain names (especially the most significant two components, e.g. "sun.com", and especially in the ".com" tld) have become a valuable part of many companies' "brand". The allocation of these, overseen by ICANN, has therefore become highly political and is performed by a number of different registrars. There are different registries for the different tlds.

A final dot on the end of a FQDN can be used to tell the DNS that the name is fully qualified and so needs no extra suffixes added, but it is not required.